Transcript Slide 1

Data challenges &
opportunities: offenders in
custody and the community
Caroline Bonds (Head of Strategic Drug & Alcohol Treatment Team) &
Robert Stanbury (Alcohol Operational Policy & Delivery Manager)
ISMG ~ Interventions and Substance Misuse Group
Why does NOMS collect data?
• As a strategic tool that can be
closely linked to planning
• Review the effectiveness of
existing provision
• Identify problems and devise
appropriate remedial action
• Measure performance against
agreed targets and indicators
• Inform decisions about the
commissioning and delivery of
ISMG ~ Interventions and Substance Misuse Group
What are the principal data sources?
• Offender Assessment System (OASys)
• Case management systems e.g. CRAMS, ICMS
• Offender Caseload Management Statistics
• NOMS Performance Hub
• Interim Accredited Programme Software (IAPS)
• National Standards Monitoring and Reporting Tool
• Research and evaluation
• Police National Computer
ISMG ~ Interventions and Substance Misuse Group
ISMG ~ Interventions and Substance Misuse Group
The nature and extent of the
alcohol problem - community
• 44% of offenders had a
current problem with
alcohol use
• 48% with binge drinking
• 57% had misused alcohol
in the past
• 41% had violent behaviour
related to their alcohol use
• 47% were found to have a
criminogenic need relating
to alcohol misuse
ISMG ~ Interventions and Substance Misuse Group
What Causes Their Offending?
Criminogenic needs (OASys assessments 2007/08)
Percentage of offenders
assessed as having a need
OASys section
Offending information*
Education, training and employment
Financial management and income
Lifestyle and associates
Drug misuse
Alcohol misuse
Emotional well-being
Thinking and behaviour
Ave. no. of criminogenic needs
Ave. no. of criminogenic needs excluding
sections 1&2
Over half of the offenders had
‘needs’ with regard to criminal
history, education, training and
employment and thinking and
behaviour. Additionally, over half of
offenders in custody were also
assessed as having a ‘need’ with
regard to lifestyle and associates,
which encourage criminal activity. A
much larger proportion of offenders
in custody was assessed as having
accommodation, drug misuse and
attitudes problems than offenders
on community sentences.
As some factors, e.g. criminal
history, cannot be altered, it is
through factors like education,
employment and substance
misuse, that offending can be
* Offending information includes the current offence and criminal history.
Some groups of offenders are unlikely to be assessed and OASys data should not be read as representative of the entire
offending population
ISMG ~ Interventions and Substance Misuse Group
What are the principal data sources?
–facilitate and improve standards of
continuity of care
–support the monitoring and research
functions around DIP
–act as the SMTA in prisons
• CARATs Research Data
• Research and Evaluation
ISMG ~ Interventions and Substance Misuse Group
Alcohol Use Questions on DIR
ISMG ~ Interventions and Substance Misuse Group
Alcohol and prisons (1)
• Office of National Statistics (ONS)
research found that:63% sentenced males and 39%
females were hazardous drinkers
in the year before prison
70% of young adults
Around 8% have intensive
treatment need
• CARAT research data found that:
36% used alcohol in the 30 days
before custody
14% reported alcohol as the main
problem drug
ISMG ~ Interventions and Substance Misuse Group
Alcohol and prisons (2)
Data from a 2004/05 study showed that up to 1 in 5 CARATs clients
regarded alcohol as their main problem drug/substance
A study of problem drinking among minority prisoner groups showed that:
– A third of women had increasing risk or higher risk patterns of drinking alcohol
– Harmful levels of alcohol use featured prominently amongst 18-21 adult male
– Half of males from minority ethnic groups were drinking at increasing and
higher risk levels of alcohol, with just over a third classified as both harmful
drinkers and dependent on drugs
Data from SPCR showed that:
– 36% reported heavy drinking prior to custody;
– Heavy drinking was significantly more likely among prisoners sentenced to
less than a year (39% vs. 31%)
– 16% of sample self-reported a requirement for support for an alcohol problem
ISMG ~ Interventions and Substance Misuse Group
Assessing Need - Prisons
• All prisoners receive an Initial
Healthcare screen
• Drug Clinical Assessment (initial
• AUDIT – optional tool
• CSMA – for those whose alcohol
misuse is part of poly-drug misuse
• Psychometric testing for intensive
rehabilitation programmes
• OASys - Two thirds of prisoners
will not be given an OASys
ISMG ~ Interventions and Substance Misuse Group
Assessing need - community
• Areas should undertake a comprehensive assessment of offender
need to:
 Increase their knowledge and understanding of the offender
(drinking) profile
 Increase the correlation between identified alcohol need and service
 Influence externally commissioned alcohol services to reflect
offender need
• Should comprise analysis of data from OASys and alcohol
screening tool/specialist assessment data
• PCTs and Local Authorities should include the needs of offenders in
their area (both in the community and prisons) within their
assessments for the alcohol component of the Joint Strategic
Needs Assessment (JSNA)
ISMG ~ Interventions and Substance Misuse Group
Performance Monitoring - Community
• From April 2008 an alcohol treatment requirement (ATR) completion
target was introduced into the NOMS performance metrics to drive up
commencements and completions nationally
• From 09/10 the main ATR metric is the completion rate with a
supporting volume completions diagnostic measure:Completion rate – Minimum of 40% in each area
Volume – Minimum 100% increase on aggregated 08/9 target (1876)
• The Sentence Plan Outcomes Shadow Measure uses data from
OASys to focus on the requirement for sentence plans to ‘deliver
against needs’ by addressing the needs which are most likely to
reduce re-offending
ISMG ~ Interventions and Substance Misuse Group
Monitoring outcomes: Measuring impact on
offender health and behaviour change
• Retention rates and compliance with order
• Satisfactory completion of the intervention and any
associated community order/suspended sentence
order/licence requirement(s)
• Changes in the level of alcohol use (measured by
AUDIT/Offender Assessment System (OASys) Sentence
Plan review/outcome data)
• Improvements in health and social wellbeing e.g. family
life, accommodation, employment status, etc.
• Changes to alcohol related risk of re-offending
(measured by OASys data)
ISMG ~ Interventions and Substance Misuse Group
Target Setting and
Performance Monitoring - Prisons
• With no central funding
few targets have been
• Performance
monitoring of Alcohol
12-Step programme and
Alcohol Violence
Reduction Programme
• Measure starts and
completions targets
ISMG ~ Interventions and Substance Misuse Group
Challenges: What are the main
limitations of existing data sources?
Lack of routine, systematic and integrated data that is collected on alcohol - NATMS
NOMS does not have nationally collated data from a validated alcohol screening tool
(AUDIT still an optional tool)
Over reliance on OASys as a tool to assess need
Missing data/Invalid assessments
Replication of data collected (Healthcare – CARATs)
No single unified case management system
Operational burden of data collection
Issues around sensitivity of data/data sharing
Not in a position to provide a detailed epidemiology and provision/gap analysis from
existing data sources
No direct and routine monitoring of treatment need across prisons and probation
Spending by PCTs on alcohol treatment not reported routinely
No central record being kept of which prisons offer locally funded alcohol treatment
ISMG ~ Interventions and Substance Misuse Group
Opportunities: A brighter future?
Drug Treatment Demand Model
National Alcohol Treatment Monitoring System (NATMS)
Research studies
ICPR research to assess the effectiveness of probation work with
alcohol misusing offenders and CARATs Research
 Offender Management Cohort Study
 Revised alcohol interventions guidance
• Alcohol Learning Centre -
ISMG ~ Interventions and Substance Misuse Group