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FOTS – Artificial Respiration
Breathing Emergencies
 Continuous effective breathing is vital for life.
 Without oxygen brain cells begin to die in as
little as 4-6 minutes.
Hypoxia = term used to describe a lack of
oxygen in the blood.
Student Reference Guide p. 23-1
1
First on the Scene First Aid and CPR
www.sja.ca/bc
FOTS – Artificial Respiration
Breathing Emergencies
Causes of hypoxia
1. lack of oxygen - high altitude, suffocation,
displacement of oxygen by other gases
2. blocked airway - choking, tongue, swelling
3. ineffective breathing - severe chest injury,
inhalation injury, drug overdose, spinal cord injury
4. abnormal heart function - heart disease, injury
to the heart, drug overdose
Student Reference Guide p. 23-2, 23-3 or 9-2, 9-3
2
First on the Scene First Aid and CPR
www.sja.ca/bc
FOTS – Artificial Respiration
Breathing Emergencies
Assessing breathing
 Consider the rate, rhythm and depth of breathing.
 Rate - determine the number of breaths per
minute. This will vary with age.
 Rhythm - look for even intervals between breaths.
 Depth - watch the rise and fall of the chest;
determine if breathing is too shallow or if it is
distressed.
Student Reference Guide p. 23-2, 23-3 (or) 9-2, 9-3
3
First on the Scene First Aid and CPR
www.sja.ca/bc
FOTS = Artificial Respiration
Breathing Emergencies
Age Group
Normal Rate
Adult - 8 year and older
10 to 20
Child – 1 to 8 years
20 to 30
Infant – under 1 year
30 to 50
Student Reference Guide p. 23-2 (or) 9-2
4
First on the Scene First Aid and CPR
www.sja.ca/bc
FOTS – Artificial Respiration
Breathing Emergencies
Signs of ineffective breathing
 Severe distress; anxiety
 Dyspnea (breathing difficulty)
 Rate – too fast or too slow
 Rhythm – irregular
 Depth – too shallow
 Cyanosis – blue colouring to the lips, ears, and
fingernail beds; Shock
 Decreased consciousness; Shock
Student Reference Guide p. 23-3 (or) 9-3
5
First on the Scene First Aid and CPR
www.sja.ca/bc
FOTS – Artificial Respiration
Breathing Emergencies
Give AR if  the casualty is unresponsive
 breathing is absent
Give CPR if  the pulse is absent or are unsure
6
First on the Scene First Aid and CPR
www.sja.ca/bc
FOTS – Artificial Respiration
Breathing Emergencies
Give Assisted Breathing
 If breathing is too slow, give a breath each
time the casualty inhales plus an extra breath
in between for a total of 12-15 breaths per
minute (one breath every 5-6 seconds).
 If breathing is too fast, assist every second
inhalation for a total of 12-15 breaths per
minute.
Student Reference Guide p. 23-5 (or) 9-5
7
First on the Scene First Aid and CPR
www.sja.ca/bc
FOTS – Artificial Respiration
Breathing Emergencies
Agonal Breathing
 may be present in cardiac arrest casualty.
 there will be gasping with no regular pattern
or depth.
 do not confuse this with regular breathing.
Student Reference Guide p. 23-7 (or) 9-7
8
First on the Scene First Aid and CPR
www.sja.ca/bc
FOTS – Artificial Respiration
Breathing Emergencies
Caution  When giving AR, do not blow into a casualty
too hard or too fast as air may go into the
stomach instead of the lungs.
 Blow hard enough only to make the chest rise.
 If spinal injury is suspected, open the airway
using a jaw thrust without head tilt.
Student Reference Guide p. 23-9 (or) 9-9
9
First on the Scene First Aid and CPR
www.sja.ca/bc
FOTS – Artificial Respiration
Breathing Emergencies
Infants
SRG p. 23-15 or 9-15
 An infant’s head is quite large in comparison to
the body.
 When giving AR or CPR, put a thin pad under
the shoulders (if available) to help keep the
airway open.
SRG p. 23-10 or 9-10
 Cover the mouth and nose when ventilating
10
First on the Scene First Aid and CPR
www.sja.ca/bc