Transcript Document

University of Georgia Cooperative
Why Change Eating Habits?
• To prevent complications of diabetes
– by keeping control of:
• Blood glucose
• Cholesterol
• Blood pressure
Why Change Eating Habits?
• To improve your health
– by making healthy food choices
– and being physically active
Carbohydrate and Diabetes
• Include foods containing carbohydrate
from whole grains, fruits, vegetables and
low-fat milk in your diet
Carbohydrate and Diabetes
• The amount of carbohydrate at a meal
affects your blood glucose more
than the type
– Sugar and starch have similar effects on
blood glucose
Carbohydrate and Diabetes
• Consistency in carbohydrate intake is
important from day to day
– For people not taking diabetes medication
– For people taking a fixed dose of insulin
• Insulin should be adjusted based on
amount of carbohydrate at meals
– For people on varying doses at meal
Carbohydrate and Diabetes
• Several things affect how much your
blood glucose increases after you eat:
– amount of carbohydrate
– type of sugar or starch
– cooking and food processing
– food form
– other foods in the meal that slow digestion
Carbohydrate and Diabetes
• Limited amounts of sugar or foods
containing sugar can be used without
affecting blood glucose
– when substituted for other carbohydrates
at the meal
• Large amounts of sugar-containing
foods are not recommended
Substituting Sweets
Usual diet: 45 grams
(or 3 Carbohydrates
1 slice bread
1/3 cup rice
1/2 cup fruit
3 ounces chicken
Vegetable salad
Substitute ice-cream
for 15 grams of
carbohydrate (or 1
Carbohydrate Choice)
1/2 cup ice-cream
1/3 cup rice
1/2 cup fruit
3 ounces chicken
Vegetable salad
Carbohydrate and Diabetes
To observe effect of new food on blood
• check blood glucose 2 hours after meal for
several days
• substitute food containing sugar for other
carbohydrate in meal
• check blood glucose 2 hours
after meal and compare
Sweeteners and Diabetes
Sugar alcohols (polyols):
sorbitol, mannitol, xylitol
• Used as sweeteners and bulking agents
• Safe to use
• May cause diarrhea, especially in
• Not recommended as a sweetener
Sweeteners and Diabetes
Low calorie sweeteners:
are safe for people with diabetes when
consumed within recommended levels
Cans of soda
Acesulfame K
(maximum/day) (maximum/day)
Carbohydrate and Diabetes
• Fiber is encouraged for everyone:
20-35 grams/day
• Good sources of fiber:
– Whole grain cereals
– Fruits
– Vegetables
– Beans and peas
Carbohydrate and Diabetes
• Only large amounts (50 grams/day)
have shown improvement in blood
glucose and cholesterol
– Primarily soluble fiber (barley, oatmeal,
beans, apples, broccoli)
– Side effects make this difficult for many
Protein and Diabetes
• Protein has very little effect on blood
• Avoid large amounts of protein
– may promote kidney disease
• Restrict protein only if you have
early kidney disease
Protein and Diabetes
• Protein does not slow the absorption of
– Adding protein to snacks does not help
prevent hypoglycemia
– Fruit or crackers are good snack foods
Protein and Diabetes
• Safety of high protein, low carbohydrate
weight loss diets are unknown
– do not promote long-term weight loss
– may increase LDL cholesterol
Dietary Fat and Diabetes
• Primary goal - Lower LDL cholesterol
–Eating less saturated fat and
–Eating less trans fats
Dietary Fat and Diabetes
Foods That Contain Saturated Fats:
• Meat and meat fats (bacon, lard)
• Dairy products (whole milk,
butter, cheese, cream, ice-cream)
• Palm and coconut oil
• Baked goods made from
these fats
Dietary Fat and Diabetes
Foods That Contain Trans Fats:
• Formed when a liquid oil is made more
• Found in many types of stick margarine,
fast foods, and baked goods like
cookies, crackers, snack foods, pastries
and croissants
Dietary Fat and Diabetes
Foods That Contain Cholesterol:
• All animal foods
• Organ meats like liver
• Egg yolks
Dietary Fat and Diabetes
• Choose monounsaturated fat in place of
– olive oil, canola oil, peanut oil,
olives, avocados, nuts
Dietary Fat and Diabetes
• Eat less total fat
• Low-fat diets can help:
– with weight loss
– improve cholesterol and other fats
Dietary Fat and Diabetes
• Eat 2-3 servings fish per week
– contain a type of fat protective against
heart disease
– fatty fish especially beneficial
Weight Loss and Diabetes
A small amount of weight loss can:
• improve insulin resistance
• lower blood glucose
• improve blood cholesterol
• reduce blood pressure
Weight Loss and Diabetes
Successful weight loss usually requires:
• a structured weight loss program
• education
• reduced fat and calories
• regular physical activity
• frequent follow-up
Vitamins and Minerals and
• Vitamins and minerals from foods
• High doses of vitamin and mineral
supplements can be toxic
Vitamins and Minerals and
People who may benefit from a
multivitamin supplement:
• persons deficient in a vitamin or mineral
• elderly
• pregnant or nursing mothers
• strict vegetarians
• persons on calorie-restricted diet
Vitamins and Minerals and
• No clear benefit from vitamin and
mineral supplements except
– calcium for prevention of bone disease
– folate for prevention of birth defects
• Use of antioxidants is not advised
– vitamin C, E, selenium, beta carotene
– long-term safety and effectiveness
Alcohol and Diabetes
• If you choose to drink, limit to:
– 1 drink/day for women
– 2 drinks/day for men
• To reduce risk of hypoglycemia,
consume alcohol with food
High Blood Pressure and Diabetes
You can lower blood pressure by:
• Eating less salt
• Losing a modest amount of weight
Preventing Diabetes
Family members of people with Type 2
diabetes can prevent diabetes by:
• Weight loss if overweight
– using a structured weight loss
• Regular physical
The Bottom Line
Your lifestyle affects your health
Eat healthy foods
Daily Physical