Moriarty_8e_Basic_17

download report

Transcript Moriarty_8e_Basic_17

Public Relations
Part 5: Principles: How to Win the Battle of the
Buzz
Chapter 17
Prentice Hall, © 2009
17-1
CHAPTER KEY POINTS
Questions We’ll Answer
• What is public relations, and what are
different types of public relations programs?
• What key decisions do public relations
practitioners make when they create plans?
• What are the most common types of public
relations tools?
• Why is measuring the results of public
relations efforts important, and how should
that be done?
Prentice Hall, © 2009
17-2
THE PRACTICE OF PUBLIC RELATIONS
What is public relations?
• Communicating with various public (stakeholders),
managing the organization’s image and reputation, and
creative positive public attitudes, and generate goodwill
toward the organization.
• Public relations takes a longer, broader view of the
importance of image and reputation as a corporate
competitive asset and addresses more target audiences
than advertising.
• Publics/stakeholders—all the groups of people with
which an organization interacts—employees, members,
local communities, shareholders, customers other
institutions.
• Publicity—getting news media coverage.
• PR is a managerial function and a tactical function.
Prentice Hall, © 2009
17-3
THE PRACTICE OF PUBLIC RELATIONS
Public Opinion
• What people think; their beliefs based on
perceptions or evaluations of events, people,
institutions, or products (not necessarily on
fact).
• PR strategists want to know:
– What publics are important to us now and in the
future?
– What do these publics think?
• Opinion leaders—important people who
influence the opinions of others—are
especially important.
Prentice Hall, © 2009
17-4
THE PRACTICE OF PUBLIC RELATIONS
Reputation: Goodwill, Trust, Integrity
• Goodwill is a company’s greatest asset—
PR’s job is to create it.
• “If you tell the truth, you don’t have to
remember anything.”
• Integrity is not just about having a positive
image, it’s a result of a company’s actual
behavior.
• Public relations is the conscience of the
company, with the objective of creating trust
and maintaining the organization’s integrity.
Prentice Hall, © 2009
17-5
THE PRACTICE OF PUBLIC RELATIONS
Comparing PR and Advertising
• Media use
• Control
• Credibility
• Seek to persuade
media gatekeepers to
carry stories about or
“cover” their
companies.
• Gatekeepers are
writers, editors,
producers, talk-show
coordinators, and
newscasters.
• This aspect of PR is
called publicity.
Prentice Hall, © 2009
17-6
THE PRACTICE OF PUBLIC RELATIONS
Comparing PR and Advertising
• Media use
• Control
• Credibility
• With news stories, PR
people are at the
mercy of the media
gatekeeper.
• They don’t have to
run your story.
• Advertising runs
exactly as the client
who paid for it has
approved.
Prentice Hall, © 2009
17-7
THE PRACTICE OF PUBLIC RELATIONS
Comparing PR and Advertising
• Media use
• Control
• Credibility
• Public tends to trust
the media more than
they do advertisers.
• Consumers assume a
story is legitimate if it
appears in the media;
this is an implied
third-party
endorsement.
Prentice Hall, © 2009
17-8
THE PRACTICE OF PUBLIC RELATIONS
Comparing PR and Advertising
• Media relations
• Employee
relations
• Financial
relations
• Public affairs
• Fund-raising
• Cause marketing
• Focus on developing
media contacts.
• Knowing who in the
media might be
interested in the
organization’s story.
• Relationships must be
built on honesty,
accuracy, and
professionalism.
Prentice Hall, © 2009
17-9
THE PRACTICE OF PUBLIC RELATIONS
Comparing PR and Advertising
• Media relations
• Employee
relations
• Financial
relations
• Public affairs
• Fund-raising
• Cause marketing
• Programs that
communicate
information to
employees.
• Related program is
internal marketing.
– Communication
efforts aimed at
informing
employees about
marketing programs.
Prentice Hall, © 2009
17-10
THE PRACTICE OF PUBLIC RELATIONS
Comparing PR and Advertising
• Media relations
• Employee
relations
• Financial
relations
• Public affairs
• Fund-raising
• Cause marketing
• Communications
aimed at financial
community.
• Press releases to
business magazines,
meetings with
investors, annual
(financial) reports.
Prentice Hall, © 2009
17-11
THE PRACTICE OF PUBLIC RELATIONS
Comparing PR and Advertising
• Media relations
• Employee
relations
• Financial
relations
• Public affairs
• Fund-raising
• Cause marketing
• Communication with
government and with
the public on issues
related to government
and regulation.
– Lobbying to get
legislators to support
a bill.
– Issue management
(monitor and
communicate to and
with public).
Prentice Hall, © 2009
17-12
THE PRACTICE OF PUBLIC RELATIONS
Comparing PR and Advertising
• Media relations
• Employee
relations
• Financial
relations
• Public affairs
• Fund-raising
• Cause marketing
• The practice of raising
money by collecting
donations.
• Used by nonprofits:
museums, hospitals,
Red Cross, etc. and
directed at potential
donors.
• Sometimes called
development.
Prentice Hall, © 2009
17-13
THE PRACTICE OF PUBLIC RELATIONS
Comparing PR and Advertising
• Media relations
• Employee
relations
• Financial
relations
• Public affairs
• Fund-raising
• Cause marketing
• Companies associate
themselves with a
cause, providing
assistance and
financial support.
• Whirlpool and Habitat
for Humanity.
Prentice Hall, © 2009
17-14
THE PRACTICE OF PUBLIC RELATIONS
Other Types of PR Programs
• Corporate Reputation Management
– Focused on image, reputation, trust
• Crisis Management
– Anticipating and planning for disasters from a media
perspective and with stakeholders
• Marketing Public Relations
– Plan and deliver programs to drive sales and build
customer satisfaction to communicating to address
consumer wants and needs
• Public Communication Campaigns
– To change public opinion, discourage harmful behaviors
– “Truth” campaign to protest smoking
Prentice Hall, © 2009
17-15
PUBLIC RELATIONS PLANNING
Research
• A communications audit assess the internal and
external environment.
• Benchmarking identifies a baseline from a previous
audit, or a competitor.
• Gap analysis measures differences in perceptions
between publics, or between a public and the
organization.
• Three types of publics:
– Latent publics are unaware of their connection to an
organization an an associated problem.
– Aware publics recognize their connection with a problem
but don’t communicate about it.
– Active publics communicate and act on a problem.
Prentice Hall, © 2009
17-16
PUBLIC RELATIONS PLANNING
SWOT Analysis
• Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, Threats
• Helps companies understand the nature of the
problem so they can develop appropriate objects
and target the right publics to address a
problem.
• May cover a variety of issues:
–
–
–
–
–
Changes in public opinion
Industry and consumer trends
Economic trends
Government regulations and oversight programs
The effect or corporate strategies on stakeholders
Prentice Hall, © 2009
17-17
PUBLIC RELATIONS PLANNING
Targeting
• Research identifies appropriate target
audiences.
• CIGNA insurance identified
conscientious consumers and directed
their “Power of Caring” campaign toward
them.
• The campaign featured well-known
personalities and charitable causes like
Alex’s Lemonade Stand.
Prentice Hall, © 2009
17-18
PUBLIC RELATIONS PLANNING
Objectives and Strategies
• PR objectives are to change the public’s
knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors related to a
company brand or organization.
• Typical PR objectives focus on:
– Creating credibility
– Delivering information
– Building positive images, trust, and corporate
goodwill
• Before changing behavior, a communication
program may need to change beliefs, attitudes,
and feelings.
Prentice Hall, © 2009
17-19
PUBLIC RELATIONS PLANNING
The Big Idea
• Creative ideas get attention.
• A Nevada conservation program used a 50year-old tortoise as a mascot to promote
desert ecology.
• TBS’s Cartoon Network used electronically
lit cartoon characters on buildings and
bridges to promote their show “Aqua Teen
Hunger Force,” causing bomb scares in
Boston.
– Cost TBS $2 million and the network head
resigned
Prentice Hall, © 2009
17-20
PUBLIC RELATIONS TOOLS
Two Main Categories of PR Tools
• Controlled media
– Sponsoring organization pays for media and
controls how and when the message is delivered.
• Uncontrolled media
– Sponsoring organization doesn’t pay for media;
the media controls how and when the message is
delivered.
– Semicontrolled media include electronic media
over which companies maintain some, but not all
control (e.g., company Web sites vs. other Web
sites, blogs, chat rooms) .
Prentice Hall, © 2009
17-21
PUBLIC RELATIONS TOOLS
Advertising
• House ads
– Used in a company’s own publication or
programs (self promo).
• Public service announcements
– Run free on TV, radio, or print for a charities
or civic organizations.
• Corporate advertising
– Focused on corporate image or viewpoint
– Corporate identity advertising
– Advocacy advertising
Prentice Hall, © 2009
17-22
PUBLIC RELATIONS TOOLS
Publicity
• News releases
– Deliver PR messages to external media; answer five “Ws.”
– VNRs contain video footage.
• Pitch letters
– Engaging letter about a feature story idea sent to editors
who have to be “sold”; usually a human interest angle.
• Press conferences
– An event at which a spokesperson makes a statement to the
media; a media kit may be sent ahead of time.
• Media tours
– “Press conference on wheels”; spokesperson makes
speeches and announcements, holds press conferences, and
offers interviews.
Prentice Hall, © 2009
17-23
PUBLIC RELATIONS TOOLS
Publications
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Pamphlets
Booklets
Annual reports
Collateral material
Books
Bulletins
Newsletters
Inserts and enclosures
Position papers
Prentice Hall, © 2009
17-24
PUBLIC RELATIONS TOOLS
DVDs, CDs, Podcasts, Books, and
Online Video
• DVD and podcasts are now major PR tools.
• Books can be published simply with
electronic publishing.
• Videos are expensive but are ideal for
distributing in-depth information.
• YouTube is being used for corporate
messages.
Prentice Hall, © 2009
17-25
PUBLIC RELATIONS TOOLS
Speakers and Photos
• Speaker’s bureau
– A group of articulate people who will talk
about topics at the public’s request.
• PR departments maintain file of photos to
provide to the public.
Prentice Hall, © 2009
17-26
PUBLIC RELATIONS TOOLS
Displays and Exhibits
• Displays include booths, racks and
holders for promotional literature, and
signage.
• Exhibits are larger than displays and
may have moving parts, sound, or
video.
Prentice Hall, © 2009
17-27
PUBLIC RELATIONS TOOLS
Special Events and Tours
• Events celebrate company milestones:
– Open houses
– Birthday celebrations
– Corporate sponsorship of events
• Tours such as plant tours and trips by
delegates and representatives
– The “truth” tour reaches 750,000 teens
annually with information about the
harmful effects of smoking.
Prentice Hall, © 2009
17-28
PUBLIC RELATIONS TOOLS
Online Communication
• Intranet
– Connects people within an organization
• Extranet
– Connects people in one business with its business partners
• External communication
– Web sites, email contact with reports, press releases
distributed by email, or PR Newswire
• Internal communication
– Connects people in separate sites and it’s inexpensive
– However, it can be used in court against a company
• Web challenges
– Search optimization is a major issue
– Anyone can post anything about your company; gossip and
rumors can spread around the world in hours
– Companies can monitor what’s being said about them
Prentice Hall, © 2009
17-29
PUBLIC RELATIONS TOOLS
Effectiveness and PR Excellence
• Evaluation is based on measurable objectives
established in planning.
• Difficult to measure the effect on the bottom
line.
• Even in PR, the media and messages must
work together to meet objectives.
• Practitioners track the impact of a campaign
in terms of output (how many mentions) and
outcome (change in attitude or behavior).
Prentice Hall, © 2009
17-30
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a
retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic,
mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written
permission of the publisher. Printed in the United States of America.
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
Publishing as Prentice Hall
Prentice Hall, © 2009
17-31