Managing Mass Communications

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Transcript Managing Mass Communications

Key Concepts
Developing and Managing An
Advertising Program
 Advertising—any paid form of non-personal
presentation and promotion of ideas, goods, or
services by an identified sponsor.
 Major decisions (Five Ms):
 Mission—What are the objectives?
 Money—How much can be spent?
 Message—What message should be sent?
 Media—What media should be used?
 Measurement—How should the results be evaluated?
Setting the Objectives
 Advertising goal (or objective)—a specific
communication task and achievement level to be
accomplished with a specific audience in a specific
 Classified according to their aim:
 Inform
 Persuade
 Remind
 Reinforce
Deciding on the Advertising Budget
 Factors to consider:
 Product life cycle stage
 Market share and consumer base
 Competition and clutter
 Advertising frequency
 Product substitutability
Developing the Advertising
 Message generation and evaluation
 Creative development and execution
 Legal and social issues
Deciding on Media and Measuring
Deciding on reach, frequency, and impact
Choosing among major media types
Selecting specific vehicles
Deciding on media timing and allocation
Evaluating advertising effectiveness
Deciding on Reach, Frequency, and
 Reach (R)—the number of different persons or
households that are exposed to a particular media
schedule at least once during a specified period.
 Frequency (F)—The number of times within the
specified period that an average person or household
is exposed to the message.
 Impact (I)—the qualitative value of an exposure
through a given medium.
Choosing Among Major Media
 Consider four main variables:
 Target audience’s media habits
 Product
 Message
 Cost
Alternative Advertising Options
 Place advertising (or out-of-home advertising) is a
broad category including many creative and
unexpected forms to grab consumers’ attention where
they work, play, and shop.
 Billboards
 Public spaces
 Product placement
 Point-of-purchase
Selecting Specific Vehicles
 Audience size can be measured by:
 Circulation—number of physical units carrying the
 Audience—number of people exposed to the vehicle.
 Effective audience—number of people with target
audience characteristics exposed to the vehicle.
Deciding on Media Timing
and Allocation
 Continuity—exposures appear evenly throughout a
given period.
 Concentration—spending all ad dollars in a single
 Flighting—advertise for a period, followed by a period
with no advertising, followed by a second period of
advertising activity.
 Pulsing—continuous advertising at low-weight levels
reinforced periodically by waves of heavier activity.
Evaluating Advertising
 Communication-effect research (called copy
testing)—seeks to determine whether an ad is
communicating effectively.
 Pretesting—before an ad is placed.
 Posttesting—after an ad is placed.
 Formula for measuring sales impact of advertising:
 Share of expenditures
 Share of voice
 Share of mind and heart
 Share of market
Sales Promotion
 A collection of incentive tools, mostly short term,
designed to stimulate quicker or greater purchase of
particular products or services by consumers or the
Sales Promotion Tools
Consumer promotions
 Samples
 Coupons
 Cash refund offers
 Price packs
 Premiums
 Frequency programs
 Prizes
 Patronage awards
 Free trials
 Warranties
 Tie-in and cross promotions
 Point-of-purchase displays and
Trade promotions
 Price-off
 Allowances
 Free goods
Business and sales-force
 Trade shows and conventions
 Sales contests
 Specialty advertising
Sales Promotion Objectives
 Attract new users
 Reward loyal customers
 Increase repurchase rates
 Attract brand switchers
Advertising vs. Promotion
 Reasons for decreasing advertising-to-sales-
promotions ratios:
 Top management acceptance of promotion
 Increase in number of brands
 Competitors use promotions frequently
 Brands seen as similar
 Consumers more price-oriented
 Trade demands more deals
 Declining advertising efficiency
Major Sales Promotion Decisions
 Establish objectives
 Select the tools
 Develop the program
 Pretest the program
 Implement and control program
 Evaluate the results
Events Objectives
 Identify with a particular
 Create experiences and evoke
target market or life style
 Increase awareness of
company or product name
 Create or reinforce
perceptions of key brand
image associations
 Enhance corporate image
 Express commitment to the
community or on social
 Entertain key clients or
reward key employees
 Permit merchandising or
promotional opportunities
Major Sponsorship Decisions
 Choosing event opportunities
 Designing sponsorship programs
 Event creation
 Measuring sponsorship activities
Creating Experiences
 Experiential marketing not only communicates
features and benefits but also connects a product or
service with unique and interesting experiences.
Public Relations
 Public—any group that has an actual or potential
interest in or impact on a company’s ability to achieve
its objectives.
 Public relations (PR)—includes a variety of
programs to promote or protect a company’s image or
individual products.
PR Department Functions
 Press relations
 Product publicity
 Corporate communication
 Lobbying
 Counseling
Marketing Public Relations (MPR)
 Launching new products
 Repositioning a mature product
 Building interest in a product category
 Influencing specific target groups
 Defending products that have encountered public
 Building the corporate image in a way that reflects
favorably on its products
Major Tools in Marketing PR
 Publications
 Speeches
 Events
 Public-service activities
 Sponsorships
 Identity media
 News
Major Decisions in Marketing PR
 Establish marketing objectives
 Choose messages and vehicles
 Implement and evaluate the plan