The Need for Alternative Fuels and Advanced Technology Vehicles

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Transcript The Need for Alternative Fuels and Advanced Technology Vehicles

The Importance of Energy
Independence
 World oil reserves
 U.S. owns 2-3%
 U.S. uses 25%
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 Rising petroleum prices
 Volatility of petroleum market
 Emissions and air quality
 Environment
 Health
 Energy Independence
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About the U.S. DOE Clean Cities
Program
 Advance U.S.
 Economic security
 Environmental security
 Energy security
 Support local petroleum reduction
 U.S. DOE Office of Energy Efficiency and
Renewable Energy’s Vehicle Technologies
Program
 90 volunteer coalitions
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 Promotion of
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Advanced technology vehicles
Fuel blends
Fuel economy
Hybrid vehicles
Idle reduction
 Coalition activities
 Stimulate local economies
 Facilitate adoption of new transportation
technologies
 Make communities cleaner, healthier places to
live
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Figure 1: Clean Cities coalition locations. Source: DOE.
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National Alternative Fuels Training
Consortium (NAFTC)
 Programs to reduce dependence on oil
 Only nationwide alternative fuel and advanced
technology vehicle training organization in U.S.
 Provides training infrastructure
 Increase nation’s energy security, lessen
dependence on petroleum, improve air quality
 Network of National Training Centers (NTCs)
 Clean Cities Learning Program
(CCLP)
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Reducing Petroleum Consumption
 Petroleum = most consumed energy source in
U.S.
 About half of petroleum used is imported
 U.S. spends
 $5.7 billion per week on petroleum imports
 $297 billion per year on petroleum imports
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Figure 2: Primary energy consumption by major source, 1949, 2010. Source: EIA Annual Energy Review 2011.
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Figure 3: End-use shares of total energy consumption, 2010. Source: EIA Annual Energy Review 2011.
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Figure 4: Primary energy consumption by source and sector, 2010. Source: EIA Annual Energy Review 2011.
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Reducing Emissions
 Air quality/human health
 Increased “green” job opportunities
 Economic growth possibilities
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Figure 5: Global anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions in 2004. Source: Intergovernmental Panel on Climate change 4th Assessment.
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Figure 6: Global anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions in 2004. Source: Intergovernmental Panel on Climate change 4th Assessment.
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Figure 7: Major regulated tailpipe emissions. Source: NAFTC.
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The Need for Alternative Fuels and
Advanced Technology Vehicles
 Federal Requirements
 CAFE
 Seeks to raise fuel economy standards
 Started during 1973 Oil Embargo
 Energy Policy Act of 1992
 Reduce U.S. dependence on foreign petroleum
 Improve air quality
 Use of alternative fuel and advanced technology
vehicles
 DOE Clean Cities Program
 Federal, state agencies
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Figure 8: CAFE fuel economy standards for passenger cars. Source: NHTSA.
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The Energy Policy Act of 1992 defines
alternative fuels as,
 “…methanol, ethanol, and other alcohols;
blends of 85% or more alcohol with gasoline
(E85); natural gas and liquid fuels domestically
produced from natural gas; liquefied petroleum
gas (propane); hydrogen; electricity; biodiesel
(B100); coal-derived liquid fuels; fuels other
than alcohol, derived from biological materials;
P-Series fuels (added to the definition in
1999).”
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 Energy Policy Act of 1992 was amended by
 The Energy Conservation Reauthorization Act of
1998
 The Energy Policy Act of 2005
 The Energy Independence and Security Act of
2007
 The National Defense Authorization Act of 2008
 Executive Orders 13149, 13423, and 13514
 Added provisions for new technologies
 Added requirements for federal fleets
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State and Local Requirements
 State requirements for fleets
 Differing local regulations
 Regulations depend upon state, county,
municipality, city
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Consumer Acceptance
 Vehicle support groups:
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Current and prospective users
Vehicle and component manufacturers
Fuels industry representatives
Government officials
Automotive service technicians
 Groups must be informed
 Education, outreach, training
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 Reduced petroleum consumption
 Commonality of vehicles
 Familiarity with fuels and technologies
Figure 9: Toyota Prius, the first modern hybrid electric vehicle commonly found on today’s roadways. Source: Toyota.
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Did You Know?
The U.S. Energy Information
Administration estimates that, in the
near future, alternative fuel and
advanced technology vehicles will
comprise more than 20% of the lightduty vehicles in the United States.
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Consumer Demand
 Factors peaking consumer interest:
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Higher conventional fuel costs
More vehicle options
Improved technology and reliability
Increased concern for the environment
 Combination of technologies
 New vehicle applications
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Increase in AFVs on the road
By 2015, HEVs = 7% of U.S. vehicle market
OEM alternative fuel applications
Alternative fuel conversions
Adaptations to changing market demands
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Figure 10: Alternative fuel vehicles in use (1995-2009). Source: AFDC.
Note: The graph does not include concept or demonstration vehicles.
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Summary
 Rising fuel prices create demand, wider
availability
 Lower EPA emissions regulations,
increased CAFE standards
 Consumers must accept new technologies
 Benefits to health, environment, economy,
energy security
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