TelosB Charging and Energy Meter Kit

download report

Transcript TelosB Charging and Energy Meter Kit

TelosB Charging and
Energy Meter Kit(Dec1201)
Group Leader: Tomas Mullins
Communicator: Casey Liebl
Webmaster: Shiya Liu
Team Members: Andrew Gurik & Qiao Huang
Advisor: Dr. Daji Qiao
www.seniord.ece.iastate.edu/dec1201
Problem Statement
TelosB Charging/Metering Kit

Power from 3 sources

Charge AA or AAA Batteries

NiMH or Alkaline

Monitor Current, Voltage, & Power
Deliverables
 3 Fully Functional Kits
 Complete Design and Testing Documentation
www.seniord.ece.iastate.edu/dec1201
2
TelosB
 Wireless Sensor Module
 Low Power
 For Experimentation/Research
 Open Source Operating
System - TinyOS
www.seniord.ece.iastate.edu/dec1201
3
Powercast Receiver
 Remote Wireless Power
 For Low Power
Applications
 40-45 Foot Range
 Maximum 4.2V
 100mA
http://www.powercastco.com/products/powerharvesterreceivers/
www.seniord.ece.iastate.edu/dec1201
4
Sundance Solar
 Small Solar Panel
 For Low Power Applications
 4V produced by solar panels
 3.5V output after protection
diode
www.seniord.ece.iastate.edu/dec1201
5
Batteries
 NiMH (Nickel-Metal Hydride)
 1.2 Volts per Cell
 Charges at 1.4 Volts
 Alkaline
 1.5 Volts per Cell
 Charges at 1.65 Volts
www.seniord.ece.iastate.edu/dec1201
6
Big Picture
www.seniord.ece.iastate.edu/dec1201
7
Users & Uses
 iCube Sensors Lab
 EE 423: Communication Systems Laboratory
 CprE 546: Wireless and Sensor Networks
 CprE 454/ComS 554: Distributed and Network
Operating Systems
 For Research of Energy Replenishment for Wireless
Sensor Networks
www.seniord.ece.iastate.edu/dec1201
8
Requirements
Functional

The entire system must keep power
consumption to a minimum

The device must be able to receive
inputs from USB, a Sundance Solar
charger, or a Powercast Receiver

Must sample power usage every 0.1
seconds

A computer must display the real time
data points and store the data

At least an 8 bit ADC resolution on
voltage measurements 0-3 Volts

Output the readings to the TelosB
device or PC via USB
www.seniord.ece.iastate.edu/dec1201
Non-functional
9

The size of the device must be limited to 2
AA plus 2 AAA batteries and about 1 inch
tall

The system should be neatly integrated

The device could have a sturdy packaging
solution
Additional Information
Constraints:
 Production costs ($500 max for three devices at $100 per unit)
 Time: Device must be working by December 2012
Potential Risks:




Power Consumption
Over-charging Batteries
Over-voltage on TelosB
Battery life of removable batteries
Market Research:
 The market has many options for wireless sensors with a
charging kit. Many of these devices do not have metering kits for
voltage, current and power.
www.seniord.ece.iastate.edu/dec1201
10
Design Decomposition
TelosB Charging &
Metering Kit
Protection
Metering
Microcontroller
Regulator
Reports via
USB
Measures
Voltage via
ADC
Overvoltage
Controls
Circuit
Calculates
Current
Overcharging
ADC
Calculates
Power
Back Current
Maintain
Voltage
www.seniord.ece.iastate.edu/dec1201
11
Batteries
Charging
Provides
Power
Smart
Charger
Functional Block Diagram
www.seniord.ece.iastate.edu/dec1201
12
Circuit Diagram
www.seniord.ece.iastate.edu/dec1201
13
Microcontroller
Justifications
MSP430
PIC
Arduino
Pros
Pros
Pros
•Low Power
Consumption
•USB Interface
•Small Size
•Inexpensive
•Low Power
Consumption
•USB Interface
•DIP Package
•User Friendly
•Powerful System
•USB Interface
Cons
Cons
Cons
•Expensive Test Board
•QFN Package
•Larger Size
•Slightly More
Expensive
•Higher Power
Consumption
•Expensive
•Complex System
•Large Size
www.seniord.ece.iastate.edu/dec1201
14
Diode Justifications
Traditional
Germanium
Schottky
Pros
Pros
Pros
•Inexpensive
•Low Leakage Current
•Low Voltage Drop
•Low Voltage Drop
Cons
Cons
Cons
•High Voltage Drop
•Expensive
•Difficult to Find
•Temperature Sensitive
•High Leakage Current
•Expensive
•Higher Leakage
Current
www.seniord.ece.iastate.edu/dec1201
15
Regulator Justifications
Diode
LM317
Pros
Pros
• Inexpensive
• Simple
• Easy to Implement
• Provides overvoltage
protection
• Good Voltage Control
Cons
Cons
• High Power
Consumption
• Expensive
www.seniord.ece.iastate.edu/dec1201
16
Regulator Testing
LM317 Vout vs. Vin
3.5
Vout(Volts)
3
2.5
2
1.5
1
0.5
0
Vin(Volts)
www.seniord.ece.iastate.edu/dec1201
17
Cost
DESCRIPTION
QTY
Schottky Diode
USB connector
Battery chassis
PIC microcontroller
TOTAL COST
10
3
3
3
UNIT
PRICE
3.36
1.48
0.94
2.8
TOTAL
PRICE
33.60
4.44
2.82
8.4
49.26
*All other parts available from the Electronics Shop
www.seniord.ece.iastate.edu/dec1201
18
Hours Consumed for
Spring Semester
Name
Total Hours
Tomas Mullins
28
Casey Liebl
27
Qiao Huang
27
Andrew Gurik
30
Shiya Liu
28
www.seniord.ece.iastate.edu/dec1201
19
Implementation Plan
www.seniord.ece.iastate.edu/dec1201
20
Schedule
www.seniord.ece.iastate.edu/dec1201
21
Questions?
www.seniord.ece.iastate.edu/dec1201
Scenario A: Power Source Connected,
Charging Batteries, Reporting to TelosB
www.seniord.ece.iastate.edu/dec1201
23
Scenario B: Power Source Connected,
Charging Batteries, Reporting to PC
www.seniord.ece.iastate.edu/dec1201
24
Scenario C: Power Source Connected, Not
Charging Batteries, Reporting to TelosB
www.seniord.ece.iastate.edu/dec1201
25
Scenario D: Power Source Connected, Not
Charging Batteries, Reporting to PC
www.seniord.ece.iastate.edu/dec1201
26
Scenario E: No Power Source Connected,
Reporting to TelosB
www.seniord.ece.iastate.edu/dec1201
27
Microcontroller Power
Comparison
Current
consumption:
Device
TelosB Duty Cycle:
uController Duty Cycle:
PIC
MSP430
Difference:
1% 1%
10%
50%
0.335 0.778
0.275 0.481
0.060 0.298
1%
100%
1.333
0.738
0.595
Implementation Currents
Current (mA)
10% 10%
10%
10%
50%
100%
2.296
2.740
3.295
2.237
2.442
2.700
0.060
0.298
0.595
50%
10%
11.014
10.955
0.060
50%
50%
11.458
11.160
0.298
50%
100%
12.013
11.418
0.595
100%
10%
21.912
21.852
0.060
100%
50%
22.355
22.058
0.298
100%
100%
22.910
22.315
0.595
Battery Life:
2600 mAh
Device
1%
TelosB Duty Cycle:
uController Duty Cycle:
PIC
MSP430
Difference:
10%
1%
50%
324
139
394
225
-70.249 -86.135
1%
100%
81
147
-65.516
Lifetime - AA NiMH
Lifetime (days)
10% 10%
10%
10%
50%
100%
47
40
33
48
44
40
-1.260
-4.818
-7.247
50%
10%
10
10
-0.054
50%
50%
9
10
-0.252
50%
100%
9
9
-0.470
100%
10%
5
5
-0.014
100%
50%
5
5
-0.065
100%
100%
5
5
-0.126
http://www.ti.com/mcu/docs/mcuorphan.tsp?contentId=61835&DCMP=MSP430&HQS=Other%2bOT%2bulp
www.seniord.ece.iastate.edu/dec1201
28