Hybrid Vehicles PPT

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Transcript Hybrid Vehicles PPT

DRILL OF THE MONTH
HYBRID VEHICLES
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WHAT IS A HYBRID VEHICLE?
Any vehicle which combines two or more
sources of power.
Examples:
 Diesel
– electric
 Nuclear – electric
 Gasoline - electric
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HYBRID STRUCTURE
The two power sources found in hybrid
vehicles may be combined in different
ways, either in parallel or series
Either one will allow the gasoline engine to
shut down when it is not needed.
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PARALLEL HYBRID
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Gasoline motor
Batteries which
powers an electric
motor
Both can power the
transmission at the
same time
Electric motor
supplements the
gasoline engine
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SERIES HYBRID
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Gasoline motor turns
a generator
Generator may either
charge the batteries
or power an electric
motor that drives the
transmission
At low speeds is
powered only by the
electric motor
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HIGH VOLTAGE ELECTRICAL
SYSTEMS
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Power for the electric motor is supplied by
high-voltage nickel-metal hydride battery
Batteries for all hybrids are produced by
Panasonic EV Energy in Japan
Voltage ranges from 144 volts to 650 volts
of DC current
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HIGH VOLTAGE ELECTRICAL
SYSTEMS
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High voltage wiring may color coded
orange, bright blue or even yellow
Batteries vary in design, however, all
incorporate individual cells connected to
one another
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HIGH VOLTAGE ELECTRICAL
SYSTEMS
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BATTERIES
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Individual cells originally contained liquid
potassium hydroxide
The liquid is almost totally absorbed by
the paper membranes inside each cell of
the battery
Because the liquid is absorbed these
batteries are considered “dry cell”
batteries
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BATTERIES
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HIGH VOLTAGE ELECTRICAL
SYSTEMS
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Batteries are usually located in the rear of
the vehicle under the floor of the trunk or
under the rear seat.
The wiring harness from the batteries
usually runs below the floorpan of the
vehicle about one foot in from the driver’s
side of the vehicle.
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HIGH VOLTAGE ELECTRICAL
SYSTEMS
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BATTERY RECHARGING
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The Ni-MH batteries are recharged
through a process call regenerative
braking
Regenerative braking takes energy from
the forward momentum of the vehicle and
captures it while coasting or braking.
Occasionally batteries are recharged by
the electric motor
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THE “SILENT” HYBRID
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Most gasoline engines
in hybrids will shut off
when not needed –
i.e. when stopped in
traffic
Most hybrids have an
indicator light which
may alert individuals
to the status of the
vehicle
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THE “SILENT” HYBRID
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When the vehicle is in this silent mode it
may “awaken” without notice
Chocking the wheels is critical to
responder safety
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EMERGENCY PROCEDURES
FIRES
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Vehicle fires can be handled following
normal vehicle firefighting procedures
Crews should not be shocked, even if
flames are impinging on the battery pack
itself
Virtually all fires involving Ni-MH batteries
can be controlled with water
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EMERGENCY PROCEDURES
Ni – MH BATTERY PACK
PHYSICAL DAMAGE
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High-voltage circuits are color-coded either
orange, bright blue or yellow
Never disassemble or remove the metal cover of
the high-voltage battery pack
DC current is normally isolated from any contact
with the vehicle itself – theoretically in order to
receive a shock you would have to physically
contact two separate points within the highvoltage system at the same time
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EMERGENCY PROCEDURES
Ni – MH BATTERY PACK
PHYSICAL DAMAGE
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If the high-voltage cables running under
the vehicle were damaged the highvoltage battery is designed short circuit.
This short circuit would de-energize the
entire high-voltage battery circuit
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HYBRID VEHICLES – CRASH
PROCEDURES
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Hybrid vehicle identification
Vehicle stabilization
Access to the passenger compartment
Shift gear selector lever (to park)
Turn the key “OFF” and remove it from the
ignition
Check that the “ready” indicator light is out
Disconnect the 12-volt battery.
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HYBRID VEHICLES – OTHER
CONSIDERATIONS
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A rear-end collision would destroy the most
obvious hybrid vehicle logos
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Indicator light on the dash would help identify
Vented c-pillar on older hybrids
Orange wiring under the hood
If the high-voltage battery is severely damaged
it should be considered a hazmat incident
•
This is not true, the total amount of liquid originally placed in
the batteries is only around 6 oz.; this is almost totally
absorbed by the paper membranes in the cells
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HYBRID VEHICLES – OTHER
CONSIDERATIONS
KEYLESS IGNITION SYSTEMS
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KEYLESS IGNITION SYSTEMS
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Convenience of push button start
Systems are designed to deter theft and
break-ins
Utilize key fobs which contain a chip with
an ID code that the vehicle must
recognize
The key fob must be in the vehicle in
order for the car to start
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KEYLESS IGNITION SYSTEMS
What do we do in an emergency?
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Place the vehicle in Park and press the start/stop
or power button.
If possible remove the key fob from the interior
of the vehicle – this may be difficult since it may
be in a purse or pants pocket. This will prevent
the car from being powered up if the low voltage
system cannot be secured.
Disconnect the low voltage battery per
department policy.
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COMMON MEANS OF
IDENTIFICATION
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COMMON MEANS OF
IDENTIFICATION
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COMMON MEANS OF
IDENTIFICATION
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WHO’S MAKING HYBRIDS
NOW?
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Honda
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Toyota
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Ford
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Mazda
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Saturn
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Accord
Civic
Insight
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Prius
Camry
Highlander
Escape
Lexus
Mercury
•
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Dodge
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Vue
Mariner SUV
Ram – contractor’s edition
General Motors
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Tribute
RX 400h SUV
GS 450h
LS 600h L
Nissan
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Silverado and Sierra
Malibu
Tahoe/Yukon
Altima
Versa
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WHAT’S IN STORE FOR THE
FUTURE?
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Toyota Sienna minivan
Chrysler Aspen
Cadillac Escalade
Dodge Durango
Porsche Cayenne
BMW X6
Hyundai Accent
Mercedes Benz S400
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SUMMARY
Due to the proliferation of hybrid vehicles on
the road today, responders must be
familiar with how these vehicles operate,
and how to handle an emergency which
involves one of these vehicles.
Additionally, responders must stay up-todate with current vehicle technology, as it
is continuously changing.
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