oil burner component parts

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Transcript oil burner component parts

Unit 12
Oil Heat Components
OBJECTIVES
After studying this Unit, the reader should be
able to
•List and describe the parts of a high pressure oil burner
• Describe service procedures for oil burner components
GUN-TYPE OIL BURNER
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Oil and air forced into burner for mixing and ignition
Burner motor provides power for the fan and fuel pump
Burner fan or blower – Forces air into the chamber
Fuel oil pumps – delivers oil to the chamber
Nozzle – atomizes oil prior to ignition
Air tube – delivers air to the chamber
Electrodes – provides spark for ignition
Ignition transformer / electronic igniters
Primary control unit – controls burner operation
Transformer
Motor
Blower Housing
Nozzle
Blower
Air Inlet Collar
Flexible Coupler
Air Tube
Electrodes
Mounting Flange
Fuel Pump
Static Disc
End Cone
OIL BURNER
COMPONENT PARTS
BURNER MOTOR
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Split-phase fraction horsepower motor
Facilitates motion of the blower and fuel pump
Flexible coupler connects motor to the pump
Normal motor speeds are 1750 and 3450 rpm
Pump should always match the pump’s rpm
BURNER FAN OR BLOWER
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Squirrel cage blower
Has an adjustable air inlet opening
Fan forces air through the air tube to the combustion chamber
The air is mixed with atomized fuel in preparation for
combustion
FUEL OIL PUMPS
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Can be either single or two-stage pumps
Pump has a built in pressure regulator
Pressure regulator can be adjusted
Oil pressures range from 100 psig to 140 psig
Single stage pumps are used when the oil tank is located above the
burner
• Two-stage pumps are used when oilis stored below the burner
NOZZLES
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Atomizes the fuel for combustion
Bore size determines the amount of oil used
Rated by spray pattern, flow rate and angle
Spray patterns: hollow, solid, or semi-solid cones
Flow rate is measured in gallons per hour
Spray angles range from 30 to 90 degrees
Always select the proper nozzle
THE NOZZLE
Orifice
Stainless Steel Orifice Disc
Stainless Steel Distributor
Brass Body
Screwpin
Sintered Filter
ELECTRODES
• Located within the air tube
• Metal rods insulated with ceramic
insulators
• Electrode ends make contact with the
transformer terminals
• Provide a high voltage spark for ignition
• Continuous or intermittent ignition
Air Tube
Static Disc
Electrodes
Ceramic Insulators
End Cone
Nozzle
IGNITION TRANSFORMERS &
ELECTRONIC IGNITERS
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Step-up transformers with 120-volt primary
Secondary voltage is 10,000 volts or more
Provides the high voltage to the electrodes
Cannot be serviced in the field
Spark can be checked in the field
HEAT EXCHANGER
• Exchangers transfer the heat from combustion to the air that is
circulated to heat the structure
• Heat exchangers also separate flue gases from the air
circulated to heat the structure
• Heat exchangers should be inspected during normal service for
cracks
• Some states allow cracked heat exchangers to be welded, but
most do not
• Correct airflow is important across the heat exchanger
Unit Summary
• The typical oil burner contains a motor, blower, fuel pump, nozzle,
electrodes and primary control
• Nozzles rated by flow rate, angle and spray pattern
• Ignition transformers and electronic igniters provide the high voltage needed
for spark ignition