5.1 Radio Signals & Equipment

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Transcript 5.1 Radio Signals & Equipment

General License
Class
Chapter 5
Radio Signals &
Equipment
(Part 1)
Signal Review
• Continuous Wave (CW)
• A signal at one frequency whose amplitude never
varies.
• Normally used to refer to turning the signal on &
off in a specific pattern to convey information.
• Morse Code.
Signal Review
• Modulation
• Changing a signal in some manner to convey
information.
•
•
•
•
Can change amplitude (AM).
Can change frequency (FM).
Can change phase (PM).
A signal with no information is “unmodulated”.
Signal Review
• Modulation
• Changing a signal in some manner to convey
information.
• Voice mode or phone.
• Information is voice.
• Analog.
• Digital.
• Data mode or digital mode.
• Information is data.
Signal Review
• Amplitude Modulated Modes
• Amplitude Modulation (AM).
• Carrier plus two sidebands are transmitted.
• Higher fidelity.
• Single-Sideband (SSB).
• Carrier & one sideband are suppressed.
• Lower Sideband (LSB).
• Only lower sideband is transmitted.
• Upper sideband (USB).
• Only upper sideband is transmitted.
• Higher efficiency.
• Less bandwidth.
Signal Review
• Angle Modulated Modes
• Frequency Modulation (FM).
• Deviation = amount of frequency change.
• Phase Modulation (PM).
• Constant power whether modulated or not.
Signal Review
• Bandwidth Definition
• All modulated signals have sidebands.
• FCC defines bandwidth as:
§97.3(a)(8) -- Bandwidth. The width of a frequency band
outside of which the mean power of the transmitted signal
is attenuated at least 26 dB below the mean power of the
transmitted signal within the band.
Signal Review
• Bandwidth Definition
Type of Signal
Typical Bandwidth
AM Voice
6 kHz
Amateur Television
6 MHz
SSB Voice
2 khz to 3 kHz
Digital using SSB
50 Hz to 3 kHz
CW
100 Hz to 300 Hz
FM Voice
10 kHz to 15 kHz
G8A01 -- What is the name of the process
that changes the envelope of an RF wave to
carry information?
A.
B.
C.
D.
Phase modulation
Frequency modulation
Spread spectrum modulation
Amplitude modulation
G8A01 -- What is the name of the process
that changes the envelope of an RF wave to
carry information?
A.
B.
C.
D.
Phase modulation
Frequency modulation
Spread spectrum modulation
Amplitude modulation
G8A02 -- What is the name of the process
that changes the phase angle of an RF wave
to convey information?
A.
B.
C.
D.
Phase convolution
Phase modulation
Angle convolution
Radian inversion
G8A02 -- What is the name of the process
that changes the phase angle of an RF wave
to convey information?
A.
B.
C.
D.
Phase convolution
Phase modulation
Angle convolution
Radian inversion
G8A03 -- What is the name of the process
which changes the frequency of an RF wave
to convey information?
A.
B.
C.
D.
Frequency convolution
Frequency transformation
Frequency conversion
Frequency modulation
G8A03 -- What is the name of the process
which changes the frequency of an RF wave
to convey information?
A.
B.
C.
D.
Frequency convolution
Frequency transformation
Frequency conversion
Frequency modulation
G8A05 -- What type of modulation varies the
instantaneous power level of the RF signal?
A.
B.
C.
D.
Frequency shift keying
Pulse position modulation
Frequency modulation
Amplitude modulation
G8A05 -- What type of modulation varies the
instantaneous power level of the RF signal?
A.
B.
C.
D.
Frequency shift keying
Pulse position modulation
Frequency modulation
Amplitude modulation
G8A07 -- Which of the following phone
emissions uses the narrowest frequency
bandwidth?
A.
B.
C.
D.
Single sideband
Double sideband
Phase modulation
Frequency modulation
G8A07 -- Which of the following phone
emissions uses the narrowest frequency
bandwidth?
A.
B.
C.
D.
Single sideband
Double sideband
Phase modulation
Frequency modulation
G8A11 -- What happens to the RF carrier
signal when a modulating audio signal is
applied to an FM transmitter?
A. The carrier frequency changes proportionally to the
instantaneous amplitude of the modulating signal
B. The carrier frequency changes proportionally to the
amplitude and frequency of the modulating signal
C. The carrier amplitude changes proportionally to the
instantaneous frequency of the modulating signal
D. The carrier phase changes proportionally to the
instantaneous amplitude of the modulating signal
G8A11 -- What happens to the RF carrier
signal when a modulating audio signal is
applied to an FM transmitter?
A. The carrier frequency changes proportionally to the
instantaneous amplitude of the modulating signal
B. The carrier frequency changes proportionally to the
amplitude and frequency of the modulating signal
C. The carrier amplitude changes proportionally to the
instantaneous frequency of the modulating signal
D. The carrier phase changes proportionally to the
instantaneous amplitude of the modulating signal
Digital Modes
• Overview
• Data speeds. (Clear as mud?)
• Data rate = Bits per second (bps).
• Symbol rate = Symbols per second (baud).
• Data rate = symbol rate only if 1 symbol = 1 bit.
• Duty cycle considerations.
• Most digital modes are 100% duty cycle.
• Most modern transmitters must reduce output power to
avoid exceeding maximum average power output.
Digital Modes
• Bandwidth
• Required bandwidth increases as symbol rate
increases.
• BW = B x K
• B = Symbol rate in bauds.
• K = Factor relating to shape of keying envelope.
Digital Modes
• Frequency Shift Keying (FSK) Modes.
• Radioteletype (RTTY).
• Oldest digital mode.
• Still very popular.
• Normal shift = 170 Hz.
• Baudot code.
• Characters = combinations of 5 bits each.
• Each element = 1 data bit.
• Maximum of 32 (25) characters.
• LTRS & FIGS (shift codes).
• Start & stop bits frame each character.
Digital Modes
• Frequency Shift Keying (FSK) Modes.
• Multiple Frequency Shift Keying
• MFSK16.
•
•
•
•
16 tones, 15.625 Hz apart.
Data rate = 63 bps (42 wpm).
Bandwidth = 316 Hz (approx).
Good weak signal performance even though does not use
error correction. (ERROR: MFSK16 uses FEC.)
• MT63.
• Uses 64 tones to modulate signal.
• Bandwidth = 1 kHz.
• Includes extensive error correction.
Digital Modes
• Phase-Shift Keying (PSK) Modes.
• PSK31.
• G3PLX developed PSK31 for keyboard-to-keyboard
communications.
• 31 = data rate (31.25 baud).
• Uses variable-length code (Varicode).
• Number of bits per character varies.
• Most common characters have shortest code.
• Uses 00 as separator between characters.
• Bandwidth = 37.5 Hz.
• Narrowest of all HF digital modes, including CW.
Digital Modes
• Packet Modes.
• Packet basics.
• Data to be sent is divided into “chunks”, control/status
information is added before & after each "chunk”
forming a “packet”.
• Header -- Control & routing information and sometimes error
correction information.
• Data -- Typically 128 or 256 characters.
• Trailer -- Check sum & possibly additional control & status
information.
Digital Modes
• Packet Modes.
• Packet basics.
• Error detection.
• Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC).
• A number calculated from all of the other bytes in the
packet which is appended to the end o the packet.
• Receiving system can calculate the CRC of the incoming
packet, & if they don’t match ask the packet to be sent
again.
• Forward Error Correction (FEC).
• Additional information is added to each packet to help
receiving system reconstruct the packet if CRC fails.
Digital Modes
• Packet Modes.
• Packet radio.
• American Standard Code for Information
Interchange (ASCII).
• Characters = combinations of 7 elements each.
• An 8th bit called a parity bit may be added.
• Or the 8th bit could be an additional data bit.
• Each element = 1 data bits.
• Maximum of 128 (27) characters
• 256 (28) maximum characters if 8 data bits.
• Start bit & 1, 1.5, or 2 stop bits frame each character.
• AX.25 Protocol.
Digital Modes
• Packet Modes.
• Packet radio.
• HF packet.
• Limited to 300 baud.
• Not well suited for HF propagation conditions.
• VHF/UHF packet.
• AFSK using FM transmitters at 1200 or 9600 baud.
• Basis of APRS.
Digital Modes
• PACTOR & WINMOR
• Teletype-Over-Radio (TOR).
• TOR modes developed to improve reliability over RTTY.
• Data sent in short bursts with error detection & error
correction information.
• AMTOR.
• G-MOR.
• More reliable, but slow.
Digital Modes
• PACTOR & WINMOR
• PACTOR.
• PACTOR-I developed by DL6MAA & DK4FV.
• Uses FSK modulation.
• Overcomes shortcomings of AMTOR & HF packet.
• Works well in weak-signal & high-noise conditions.
Digital Modes
• PACTOR & WINMOR
• PACTOR.
• PACTOR-II & PACTOR-III used today.
• Uses PSK modulation.
• Automatic repeat request (ARQ) used to eliminate errors.
• Adjusts speed (“trains”) to match conditions.
• 5 kbps data rates possible.
• Most popular modes for transferring large amounts of data.
• WINMOR.
• Like PACTOR but can use either FSK or PSK modulation.
G2E01 -- Which mode is normally used when
sending an RTTY signal via AFSK with an SSB
transmitter?
A.
B.
C.
D.
USB
DSB
CW
LSB
G2E01 -- Which mode is normally used when
sending an RTTY signal via AFSK with an SSB
transmitter?
A.
B.
C.
D.
USB
DSB
CW
LSB
G2E02 -- How many data bits are sent in a
single PSK31 character?
A.
B.
C.
D.
The number varies
5
7
8
G2E02 -- How many data bits are sent in a
single PSK31 character?
A.
B.
C.
D.
The number varies
5
7
8
G2E03 -- What part of a data packet contains
the routing and handling information?
A.
B.
C.
D.
Directory
Preamble
Header
Footer
G2E03 -- What part of a data packet contains
the routing and handling information?
A.
B.
C.
D.
Directory
Preamble
Header
Footer
G2E05 -- Which of the following describes
Baudot code?
A. A 7-bit code with start, stop and parity bits
B. A code using error detection and correction
C. A 5-bit code with additional start and stop
bits
D. A code using SELCAL and LISTEN
G2E05 -- Which of the following describes
Baudot code?
A. A 7-bit code with start, stop and parity bits
B. A code using error detection and correction
C. A 5-bit code with additional start and stop
bits
D. A code using SELCAL and LISTEN
G2E06 -- What is the most common
frequency shift for RTTY emissions in the
amateur HF bands?
A.
B.
C.
D.
85 Hz
170 Hz
425 Hz
850 Hz
G2E06 -- What is the most common
frequency shift for RTTY emissions in the
amateur HF bands?
A.
B.
C.
D.
85 Hz
170 Hz
425 Hz
850 Hz
G2E10 -- What is a major advantage of
MFSK16 compared to other digital modes?
A. It is much higher speed than RTTY
B. It is much narrower bandwidth than most
digital modes
C. It has built-in error correction
D. It offers good performance in weak signal
environments without error correction
G2E10 -- What is a major advantage of
MFSK16 compared to other digital modes?
A. It is much higher speed than RTTY
B. It is much narrower bandwidth than most
digital modes
C. It has built-in error correction
D. It offers good performance in weak signal
environments without error correction
G2E12 -- How does the receiving station
respond to an ARQ data mode packet
containing errors?
A. Terminates the contact
B. Requests the packet be retransmitted
C. Sends the packet back to the transmitting
station
D. Requests a change in transmitting protocol
G2E12 -- How does the receiving station
respond to an ARQ data mode packet
containing errors?
A. Terminates the contact
B. Requests the packet be retransmitted
C. Sends the packet back to the transmitting
station
D. Requests a change in transmitting protocol
G2E13 -- In the PACTOR protocol, what is
meant by an NAK response to a transmitted
packet?
A. The receiver is requesting the packet be retransmitted
B. The receiver is reporting the packet was
received without error
C. The receiver is busy decoding the packet
D. The entire file has been received correctly
G2E13 -- In the PACTOR protocol, what is
meant by an NAK response to a transmitted
packet?
A. The receiver is requesting the packet be retransmitted
B. The receiver is reporting the packet was
received without error
C. The receiver is busy decoding the packet
D. The entire file has been received correctly
G8B08 -- Why is it important to know the
duty cycle of the data mode you are using
when transmitting?
A. To aid in tuning your transmitter
B. Some modes have high duty cycles which
could exceed the transmitter's average power
rating.
C. To allow time for the other station to break in
during a transmission
D. All of these choices are correct
G8B08 -- Why is it important to know the
duty cycle of the data mode you are using
when transmitting?
A. To aid in tuning your transmitter
B. Some modes have high duty cycles which
could exceed the transmitter's average
power rating.
C. To allow time for the other station to break in
during a transmission
D. All of these choices are correct
G8B11 -- How does forward error correction
allow the receiver to correct errors in
received data packets?
A. By controlling transmitter output power for
optimum signal strength
B. By using the varicode character set
C. By transmitting redundant information with
the data
D. By using a parity bit with each character
G8B11 -- How does forward error correction
allow the receiver to correct errors in
received data packets?
A. By controlling transmitter output power for
optimum signal strength
B. By using the varicode character set
C. By transmitting redundant information with
the data
D. By using a parity bit with each character
G8B12 -- What is the relationship between
transmitted symbol rate and bandwidth?
A. Symbol rate and bandwidth are not related
B. Higher symbol rates require higher
bandwidth
C. Lower symbol rates require higher bandwidth
D. Bandwidth is constant for data mode signals
G8B12 -- What is the relationship between
transmitted symbol rate and bandwidth?
A. Symbol rate and bandwidth are not related
B. Higher symbol rates require higher
bandwidth
C. Lower symbol rates require higher bandwidth
D. Bandwidth is constant for data mode signals
Radio’s Building Blocks
• Oscillators
• Generates sine wave.
• Amplifier with positive feedback.
•
•
•
•
AV = Amplifier gain.
β = Feedback ratio.
Loop Gain = AV x β
If loop gain > 1 and in phase, circuit will oscillate.
Radio’s Building Blocks
• Oscillators
• Colpitts oscillator.
Frequency determined
by values of L & C.
• Hartley oscillator.
Frequency determined
by values of L & C.
Radio’s Building Blocks
• Oscillators
• Pierce oscillator.
Frequency determined
by crystal.
• Crystals.
• Usually small wafer of quartz with precise dimensions.
• Piezoelectric effect.
• Crystal deforms mechanically when voltage applied.
• Voltage generated when crystal deformed.
Radio’s Building Blocks
• Oscillators
• Variable-frequency oscillator (VFO).
• Make either L or C adjustable (usually C).
• Not as stable.
• Used to tune radio to different frequencies.
Radio’s Building Blocks
• Oscillators
• Variable-frequency oscillator (VFO).
• “Crystal-controlled” VFO’s.
• Phase-Lock-Loop (PLL).
• Direct Digital Synthesis (DDS)
• Stability of crystal oscillator.
• Can be controlled by software.
Radio’s Building Blocks
• Mixers
• Mixing is also known as heterodyning.
• Used to change the frequency of a signal.
• Mathematically multiplies 2 frequencies together,
generating 4 output frequencies.
• f1 x f2  f1, f2, f1+f2, f1–f2
• Operation of a mixer is similar to operation of
detectors & modulators.
Radio’s Building Blocks
• Mixers
Radio’s Building Blocks
• Mixers
• Single-balanced mixer.
• Local oscillator or input signal is suppressed, but not
both.
• Mixers
• Double-balanced mixer.
• fRF & fLO are suppressed leaving only sum & difference
frequencies.
Radio’s Building Blocks
• Multipliers
• A multiplier stage creates a multiple of the input
frequency.
• An amplifier stage designed to have a lot of
distortion (harmonics) & output circuit is tuned to
the desired harmonic.
• Class C amplifier.
• Used in VHF/UHF transmitters to generate FM/PM
modulated signal at a low frequency & then
multiplied to the desired frequency.
Radio’s Building Blocks
• Modulators
• Amplitude Modulators.
• Plate modulation.
• Originally, AM was produced by varying the DC plate voltage
to the final stage of a CW transmitter.
• If solid-state transmitter, substitute collector or drain for
plate.
• Requires a LOT of audio power.
• 1 kW transmitter needs 1 kW of audio!
• Screen modulation.
• Applied AF to screen voltage of final stage.
• Less AF power required, but worse quality.
Radio’s Building Blocks
• Modulators
• Amplitude Modulators.
• AM can be generated by mixing the modulating signal
(fM) with a carrier (fC).
• fC x fM  fC, fM, fC+fM, fC–fM
• Using a single-balanced mixer, an AM signal is generated
& you don’t have to filter out the modulating signal.
• fC x fM  fC, fC+fM, fC–fM
• Using a double-balanced mixer, a double-sideband (DSB)
signal is produced.
• fC x fM  fC+fM, fC–fM
Radio’s Building Blocks
• Modulators
• Amplitude Modulators.
• AM can be generated by mixing the modulating signal
(fM) with a carrier (fC).
• fC x fM  fC, fM, fC+fM, fC–fM
Radio’s Building Blocks
• Modulators
• Amplitude Modulators.
• Using a double-balanced mixer, a double-sideband (DSB)
signal is produced.
• fC x fM  fC+fM, fC–fM
Radio’s Building Blocks
• Modulators
• Amplitude Modulators.
• The double-sideband signal is then converted to a SSB
signal by filtering out the unwanted sideband.
• Filter method of SSB generation.
OR
Radio’s Building Blocks
• Modulators
• Amplitude Modulators.
• Phase method of SSB generation.
• 2 double-balanced mixers.
• 2 carrier signals 90° out-of-phase
• 2 modulating signals 90° out-of-phase
• REALLY difficult to create in hardware.
• Easy to create in software.
Radio’s Building Blocks
• Modulators
• Amplitude Modulators.
• Advantages of SSB.
• Transmitter power used more effectively.
• In AM signal, 1/2 of power is in carrier.
• In AM signal, 1/2 of remaining power is in each sideband.
• Sidebands carry same information.
• In AM, only 25% of available power is used to transmit
the information.
• In SSB, 100% of transmitter power is used.
• 1/2 the bandwidth of AM.
Radio’s Building Blocks
• Modulators
• Frequency & Phase Modulators.
• Frequency modulation (FM).
• Carrier frequency deviates in proportion to amplitude of the
modulating signal.
• Phase modulation (PM).
• Carrier frequency deviates in proportion to both the
amplitude and the frequency of the modulating signal.
• By changing the audio frequency response of the
modulator, an FM modulator can be used to generate
PM and vice versa.
Radio’s Building Blocks
• Modulators
• Frequency & Phase Modulators.
• Both FM & PM sound the same on the air (almost).
• Only difference is in frequency response of the audio.
• Both FM & PM can be demodulated with the same
circuitry.
• Design of modulator circuit determines whether FM or
PM.
• FM = modulation applied to oscillator circuit.
• PM = modulation applied to amplifier stage following the
oscillator.
G4D08 -- What frequency range is occupied
by a 3 kHz LSB signal when the displayed
carrier frequency is set to 7.178 MHz?
A.
B.
C.
D.
7.178 to 7.181 MHz
7.178 to 7.184 MHz
7.175 to 7.178 MHz
7.1765 to 7.1795 MHz
G4D08 -- What frequency range is occupied
by a 3 kHz LSB signal when the displayed
carrier frequency is set to 7.178 MHz?
A.
B.
C.
D.
7.178 to 7.181 MHz
7.178 to 7.184 MHz
7.175 to 7.178 MHz
7.1765 to 7.1795 MHz
G4D09 -- What frequency range is occupied
by a 3 kHz USB signal with the displayed
carrier frequency set to 14.347 MHz?
A.
B.
C.
D.
14.347 to 14.647 MHz
14.347 to 14.350 MHz
14.344 to 14.347 MHz
14.3455 to 14.3485 MHz
G4D09 -- What frequency range is occupied
by a 3 kHz USB signal with the displayed
carrier frequency set to 14.347 MHz?
A.
B.
C.
D.
14.347 to 14.647 MHz
14.347 to 14.350 MHz
14.344 to 14.347 MHz
14.3455 to 14.3485 MHz
G4D10 -- How close to the lower edge of the
40 meter General Class phone segment
should your displayed carrier frequency be
when using 3 kHz wide LSB?
A. 3 kHz above the edge of the segment
B. 3 kHz below the edge of the segment
C. Your displayed carrier frequency may be set
at the edge of the segment
D. Center your signal on the edge of the
segment
G4D10 -- How close to the lower edge of the
40 meter General Class phone segment
should your displayed carrier frequency be
when using 3 kHz wide LSB?
A. 3 kHz above the edge of the segment
B. 3 kHz below the edge of the segment
C. Your displayed carrier frequency may be set
at the edge of the segment
D. Center your signal on the edge of the
segment
G4D11 -- How close to the upper edge of the
20 meter General Class band should your
displayed carrier frequency be when using 3
kHz wide USB?
A. 3 kHz above the edge of the band
B. 3 kHz below the edge of the band
C. Your displayed carrier frequency may be set
at the edge of the band
D. Center your signal on the edge of the band
G4D11 -- How close to the upper edge of the
20 meter General Class band should your
displayed carrier frequency be when using 3
kHz wide USB?
A. 3 kHz above the edge of the band
B. 3 kHz below the edge of the band
C. Your displayed carrier frequency may be set
at the edge of the band
D. Center your signal on the edge of the band
G7B07 -- What are the basic components of
virtually all sine wave oscillators?
A. An amplifier and a divider
B. A frequency multiplier and a mixer
C. A circulator and a filter operating in a feedforward loop
D. A filter and an amplifier operating in a
feedback loop
G7B07 -- What are the basic components of
virtually all sine wave oscillators?
A. An amplifier and a divider
B. A frequency multiplier and a mixer
C. A circulator and a filter operating in a feedforward loop
D. A filter and an amplifier operating in a
feedback loop
G7B09 -- What determines the frequency of
an LC oscillator?
A. The number of stages in the counter
B. The number of stages in the divider
C. The inductance and capacitance in the tank
circuit
D. The time delay of the lag circuit
G7B09 -- What determines the frequency of
an LC oscillator?
A. The number of stages in the counter
B. The number of stages in the divider
C. The inductance and capacitance in the tank
circuit
D. The time delay of the lag circuit
G7C05 -- Which of the following is an
advantage of a transceiver controlled by a
direct digital synthesizer (DDS)?
A. Wide tuning range and no need for band
switching
B. Relatively high power output
C. Relatively low power consumption
D. Variable frequency with the stability of a
crystal oscillator
G7C05 -- Which of the following is an
advantage of a transceiver controlled by a
direct digital synthesizer (DDS)?
A. Wide tuning range and no need for band
switching
B. Relatively high power output
C. Relatively low power consumption
D. Variable frequency with the stability of a
crystal oscillator
G8A04 -- What emission is produced by a
reactance modulator connected to an RF
power amplifier?
A.
B.
C.
D.
Multiplex modulation
Phase modulation
Amplitude modulation
Pulse modulation
G8A04 -- What emission is produced by a
reactance modulator connected to an RF
power amplifier?
A.
B.
C.
D.
Multiplex modulation
Phase modulation
Amplitude modulation
Pulse modulation
G8A06 -- What is one advantage of carrier
suppression in a single-sideband phone
transmission?
A. Audio fidelity is improved
B. Greater modulation percentage is obtainable
with lower distortion
C. The available transmitter power can be used
more effectively
D. Simpler receiving equipment can be used
G8A06 -- What is one advantage of carrier
suppression in a single-sideband phone
transmission?
A. Audio fidelity is improved
B. Greater modulation percentage is obtainable
with lower distortion
C. The available transmitter power can be used
more effectively
D. Simpler receiving equipment can be used
G8A12 -- What signal(s) would be found at
the output of a properly adjusted balanced
modulator?
A. Both upper and lower sidebands
B. Either upper or lower sideband, but not both
C. Both upper and lower sidebands and the
carrier
D. The modulating signal and the unmodulated
carrier
G8A12 -- What signal(s) would be found at
the output of a properly adjusted balanced
modulator?
A. Both upper and lower sidebands
B. Either upper or lower sideband, but not both
C. Both upper and lower sidebands and the
carrier
D. The modulating signal and the unmodulated
carrier
G8B01 -- What receiver stage combines a
14.250 MHz input signal with a 13.795 MHz
oscillator signal to produce a 455 kHz
intermediate frequency (IF) signal?
A.
B.
C.
D.
Mixer
BFO
VFO
Discriminator
G8B01 -- What receiver stage combines a
14.250 MHz input signal with a 13.795 MHz
oscillator signal to produce a 455 kHz
intermediate frequency (IF) signal?
A.
B.
C.
D.
Mixer
BFO
VFO
Discriminator
G8B03 -- What is another term for the mixing
of two RF signals?
A.
B.
C.
D.
Heterodyning
Synthesizing
Cancellation
Phase inverting
G8B03 -- What is another term for the mixing
of two RF signals?
A.
B.
C.
D.
Heterodyning
Synthesizing
Cancellation
Phase inverting
G8B04 -- What is the name of the stage in a
VHF FM transmitter that generates a
harmonic of a lower frequency signal to
reach the desired operating frequency?
A.
B.
C.
D.
Mixer
Reactance modulator
Pre-emphasis network
Multiplier
G8B04 -- What is the name of the stage in a
VHF FM transmitter that generates a
harmonic of a lower frequency signal to
reach the desired operating frequency?
A.
B.
C.
D.
Mixer
Reactance modulator
Pre-emphasis network
Multiplier
Questions?