Demand Side Management Using Alkaline Electrolysers within the

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Transcript Demand Side Management Using Alkaline Electrolysers within the

Frankfurt (Germany), 6-9 June 2011
Presenter: Mahdi Kiaee
Supervisors: Dr. Andrew Cruden and Professor David Infield
The University of Strathclyde, Glasgow
Email: [email protected]
Frankfurt (Germany), 6-9 June 2011
• Adverse environmental effects of increasing fossil fuel
• Need for clean energy resources
• Hydrogen is the most abundant element in the world
• A suitable storage and transmission vector for energy
• Hydrogen from renewable or nuclear electricity
generation sources
• Can increase energy security
• Fuel Cell Vehicles (FCVs) cause no direct harmful
Frankfurt (Germany), 6-9 June 2011
Frankfurt (Germany), 6-9 June 2011
The advantages of onsite production of
hydrogen from electrolysers
• No hydrogen to be shipped in tankers or piped around the country
(thereby saving costs)
• Hydrogen from renewable energy: no carbon dioxide or other
• Can be used to respond to renewable power fluctuations
• Can respond to consumer demand (e.g. at off-peak times)
• Can improve grid operation with a high penetration of renewable
Frankfurt (Germany), 6-9 June 2011
The United Kingdom Generic Distribution
System (UKGDS)
It is a resource for the purpose of simulation and
analysis of the impact of distributed generation on
the United Kingdom distribution system.
 It contains some network models which are
representative of the UK networks.
 The UKGDS networks are split into Extra High
Voltage (EHV) and High Voltage (HV) models.
Frankfurt (Germany), 6-9 June 2011
Ratings: Wind farms:1.5MW; Electrolysers:1MW
average data from wind farms with 10 minutes resolution were used
Frankfurt (Germany), 6-9 June 2011
•Every electrolyser has a controlled rectifier
and a communication system
•The electrolysers are considered to be able to
absorb variable input power within their
maximum and minimum limit
•Standby power of electrolysers: 6% of
nominal power
•The Minimum power of electrolysers: 20% of
their nominal power.
Frankfurt (Germany), 6-9 June 2011
Control strategy
 If the available wind power is greater than 0.26
MW (20%+6% of 1MW), then the first electrolyser
will work in normal mode and the second
electrolyser would be in standby mode.
If this wind power is greater than 1.2MW
(100%+20% of 1MW) then both of the electrolysers
will work in normal mode.
Restriction: each electrolyser should remain in its
status (hydrogen production or standby mode) for
at least one hour.
Frankfurt (Germany), 6-9 June 2011
In this work this residual power is negative only for
very short periods of times due to the algorithm
implemented in this study and also the proper sizing of
electrolysers and wind farms.
Frankfurt (Germany), 6-9 June 2011
The reduction of total aggregate transmission losses could be as
the result of:
 Electrolysers are located near wind farms
 Their sizes are selected properly with respect to the size of the
wind farms
 The proper control strategy
Without=7.9584 MWh
With=7.7263 MWh
bus 1158 is connected to the second electrolyser.
The nominal voltage of this bus is 11KV.
Frankfurt (Germany), 6-9 June 2011
• Electrolysers and wind farms have been introduced to a
UKGDS model to investigate the impact of electrolysers on
voltages and transmission losses of the network.
• Utilisation of electrolysers in this network could reduce the
transmission losses by 2.91%.
Future work:
• The effect of variable input power on the efficiency
and durability of electrodes will be assessed through
modelling and experiment
• The maximum acceptable derivative of injected
power will be considered