bar code technology and its application to library services

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Transcript bar code technology and its application to library services

BAR CODE TECHNOLOGY
AND
ITS APPLICATION
TO
LIBRARY SERVICES
I R N GOUDAR
HEAD, ICAST
NATIONAL AEROSPACE LABORATORIES
BANGALORE-560017
BAR CODE TECHNOLOGY

It is an automatic identification technology

Bar code is a predefined format of dark bars and white
spaces

Structured to contain a specific piece of information

It allows real-time data to be collected accurately and
rapidly

Combination of barcode technology with computer and
application software improves performance,
productivity and profitability
Discrete Symbology
Continuous Symbology
DATA ENTRY TECHNIQUES

MANUAL
METHODS
– KEYBOARD
OPERATION
– 1 ERROR/300
CHARACTERS

AUTOMATIC
METHODS
– OPTICAL CHARACTER
RECOGNITION
– MAGNETIC INK
– MACHINE VISION
– RADIO FREQUENCY
IDENTIFICATION
– SMART CARDS
– BAR CODE
BENEFITS OF BAR CODING

REPRESENT UNIQUE IDENTITY OF A PRODUCT

ACCURACY OF DATA INPUT (ERROR FREE)

AID EFFECTIVE MANAGEMENT OF RESOURCES
AND INVENTORIES

LABOUR SAVINGS BY AVOIDING MANUAL
SYSTEM
BENEFITS …

COST EFFICIENT

REAL TIME DATA COLLECTION

MEASUREMENT OF WORK IN PROGRESS
THROUGHOUT THE FACTORY

RAPID ACCESS TO TOTAL PRODUCTION COSTS

MORE ACCURATE DESPATCH
BAR CODE TERMINOLOGY
o
BAR
- The darker, non reflective element of a Bar Code
o BI-DIRECTIONAL SYMBOL
- A Bar Code symbol format which permits reading in
either direction across the bars and spaces
o CHECK DIGIT
- A calculated character included within the Bar Code for
error detection
o FIXED BEAM SCANNER
- A stationary Bar Code Scanner. The symbol must be
moved through the light beam to be read
TERMINOLOGY …

HAND-HELD SCANNER
– A scanner held and operated by a human operator

INTER-CHARACTER GAP
– The space between the bars or spaces

MOVING BEAM SCANNER
– A Bar Code scanner that uses a moving light beam to
dynamically scan and decode a Bar Code symbol
TERMINOLOGY …

SPACE
– The lighter, reflective element of a Bar Code

START CHARACTER
– A special pattern of bars and spaces used to
identify the beginning of a Bar Code symbol

STOP CHARACTER
– A special pattern of bars and spaces used to
identify the end of a Bar Code symbol
Bar-code system
Thermal Transfer Printer
BAR CODE SCANNERS

A device used to extract information
optically from a Bar Code

Bar Code symbol consists of series of
vertical dark bars separated by light spaces

When illuminated reflected light is detected
by electro optical sensor

The intensity of reflected light from the
dark bars is less than that of spaces
SCANNERS …

Reflected light is converted into electrical
voltage signals

Analog voltages are digitized into raw data

The decoder converts this data into the
character data representation of the
symbol’s code
TYPES OF SCANNERS (READERS)

CONTACT READERS
– Must touch or come in close proximity of symbol
– Good where the label cannot be placed in an easy-
to-view position
– Normally hand-held/stationary units
– Common type is pen/wand reader
– A high-density resolution wand used to read a low-
density symbol might see an ink spot as bar or an
ink void as a space
CONTACT READERS

…
A low-resolution wand may not be able to
recognise a narrow bar of high-density
symbol

Positioned angle of wand to the surface and
movement speed across the symbol are key
parameters
Contact Readers
NON-CONTACT READERS

Reader need not come in contact with
symbol
 Scan distance may be from 6” to several
feet depending upon symbol size and
scanner design
 Hand-held, fixed beam readers
Table mounted fixed beam reader
Table mounted fixed beam reader
Hand-Held moving beam readers
Fixed beam slot scanner
CCD Scanner
Portable Data Collection Equipment
BAR CODE APPLICATIONS

INVENTORY CONTROL
– Portable readers

WORK-IN PROCESS TRACKING (WIP)
COMPANY INVENTORY
– Raw materials
– WIP (Components, Assemblies, Semi finished
Products)
– Finished Products
APPLICATIONS …

SHIPPING
 ELECTRONIC DATA INTERCHANGE
(EDI)
– Direct communication between computers of
two companies (Manufacturer & Vendor)
– Industry-wide EDI standards
– Reduces cost and saves time of business
transaction
APPLICATIONS

…
RETAIL APPLICATIONS
–
–
–
–
Super markets
Counter-mounted Bar Code scanners
Universal Product Code (UPC)
Price and description information

WARE HOUSING
 HEALTH CARE APPLICATIONS
– Drugs, devices, instruments
– Identification of expiry date
– Blood banking
Blood group
 Expiry date
 Donor traceability

APPLICATIONS …
BAR CODING IN LIBRARIES

EFFECTIVE LIBRARY NEEDS EACH
DOCUMENT BAR CODED

TWO LABELS PREFERABLY

LABEL TO CONTAIN
– Accession number equivalent Bar Code
– Call number
– Institution logo advantageous

ISBN BAR CODE COULD BE USED
BARCODING IN LIBRARIES …

DATABASE PROGRAM LINKS THE BAR
CODE TO BIBLIOGRAPHIC DETAILS OF
DOCUMENTS
 AUTHORISED ID CARD INCLUDES BAR
CODE
– Card could be used by library
– Institutional ID card
– Social security number

BAR CODE READER INTERFACED TO
COMPUTER
 TRACKING OF BOOKS
INCORPORATING BAR
CODE IN LIBRARIES

THE TYPICAL SEQUENCE WOULD BE
– Database creation (OPAC)
– Generate Bar Code for all transact able
documents
– Bar Code membership cards
– Installation of suitable scanning equipment
– Set different criteria for transactions
ADVANTAGES OF BAR CODE
IN LIBRARIES
 Quick
and error free entry of access and
membership codes
 Ensures total integrity of collected data
 No queuing up at check out/check in counters
 Avoids piling up of data entry work for counter
staff
 Aids generation of suitable reminders to delinquent
borrowers
 Stock verification made easy
Thank You