PPA 577 & ADM 612

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Transcript PPA 577 & ADM 612

ADM 612 - Leadership
Lecture 14 – Leadership
Ethics
Introduction
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Very little unifying literature on
leadership ethics.
Ethics Defined
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Ethics derives from the Greek word “ethos”
meaning “customs”, “conduct”, or
“character.”
Concerned with the kinds of values and
morals an individual or society finds
desirable or appropriate.
Also concerns virtuousness of individuals
and their motives.
Ethics Defined
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In terms of leadership, ethics has to do
with what leaders do and who leaders
are.
Ethical Theories
Ethical Theories
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Ethical theories can be divided broadly
between theories about leaders’
conduct and about their characters.
The conduct theories can be further
subdivided into theories about
consequences and duties or rules.
Teleological Theories
(Consequences)
Deontological Theories (Duty)
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Is the action itself good? Not just the
consequences.
Actions of the leader and his or her
moral obligation to do the right thing.
Virtue-based Theories
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Focuses on the character of the
leader.
Virtues and moral abilities are not
innate but can be acquired and
learned through practice.
Virtue-based Theories
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Aristotle (individuals in communities): courage,
temperance, generosity, self-control, honesty,
sociability, modesty, fairness, and justice.
Velasquez (managers): perseverance, publicspiritedness, integrity, truthfulness, fidelity,
benevolence, and humility.
Our virtues come from our actions; and our actions
manifest our virtues.
Centrality of Ethics to Leadership
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The influence dimension of leadership
places a heavy ethical burden and
responsibility.
Ethical responsibility to treat subordinates
with dignity and respect.
Leaders have a greater ethical responsibility
because of their position.
Centrality of Ethics to Leadership
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Leaders help to establish and
reinforce organizational values.
All leaders have values and have an
enormous impact on the ethical values
of the organization.
Heifetz’s Perspective on Ethical
Leadership
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Leaders must use authority to mobilize
people to face tough issues.
Provides a “holding environment” in
which there is trust, nurturance, and
empathy.
Heifetz’s Perspective on Ethical
Leadership
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Within a supportive context, followers feel
safe to confront and deal with hard
problems.
Leaders get people to pay attention to
issues, act as a reality check, manage and
frame issues, orchestrate conflicting
perspectives, facilitate decision-making.
Burn’s Perspective on Ethical
Leadership
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Transformation leadership places a
strong emphasis on followers’ needs,
values, and morals.
Move followers to higher plane of
moral responsibility.
Greenleaf’s Perspective on
Ethical Leadership
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Servant leadership emphasizes that leaders
should be attentive to the concerns of their
followers and empathize with them; they
should take care of them and nurture them.
Social responsibility to be concerned with
the have-nots and recognize them as equal
stakeholders in the organization.
Common Themes
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Leader-follower relationship central to
ethical leadership.
Pay close attention to needs of
followers.
“Ethic of caring.”
Principles
of Ethical
Leadership
Strengths
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Timely research on ethical issues.
Ethics should be considered an integral part
of the broad domain of leadership.
Highlights several principles that are
important to the development of ethical
leadership.
Criticisms
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Early stage of development and does not
have a strong body of traditional research
findings.
Most of the leadership ethical theory based
on the writings of a few individuals who
have written essays and texts strongly
influenced by their personal opinions.
Application
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Not widely taught or used.
But can be taught or used by all
individuals at all levels of an
organization.
Application
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Leadership involves values, and
leader must know and be concerned
about her own values.
Leaders can better understand
themselves and strengthen their own
leadership.
Greenleaf’s Perspective on
Ethical Leadership
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Removes inequalities and social
injustices.
Uses less institutional and formal
power and shifts more responsibilities
to followers.