roots of democracy philosophers

download report

Transcript roots of democracy philosophers

Roots of Democracy
10.1
Students relate the moral and ethical principles
in ancient Greek and Roman philosophy, in
Judaism, and in Christianity to the development
of Western political thought.
Analyze the similarities and differences in
Judeo-Christian and Greco-Roman views of law,
reason and faith, and duties of the individual.
Trace the development of the Western political
ideas of the rule of law and illegitimacy of
tyranny, using selections from Plato's Republic
and Aristotle's Politics.
Consider the influence of the U.S. Constitution
on political systems in the contemporary world.
Ancient Athens, Greece
Direct Democracy
Duties of Citizens
Legislature
Jury
Rule of Law & Reason
Direct Democracy
Democracy = Rule by the
people
Direct Democracy = Vote
for/against laws not
through representatives
Citizens make political
decisions
Duties of Citizens (individuals)
Citizens = Male, 18+,
citizen parents
Participate in juries,
legislature, and law
proposals
Use Reason
Legislature
Solon – Council of 400
Cleisthenes – Council of 500
Pericles – Assembly: Any citizen
could attend
Jury
Most important duty of a citizen
201-2500 citizen men
Randomly selected
Decided guilty or innocent and
punishment
Banish a leader to prevent too much
power
Rule of Law and Reason
Universe created in an orderly way
Universe functions through
unchanging laws
Man can understand the universe
and its laws through reason and logic
Foundation for DEMOCRACY
Video on Greeks
Philosophy
Love of Wisdom
Observation and Reasoning
Ethics and Morality
Socrates
Socratic Method
Plato
Political Science
Aristotle
Science & Logic
Socrates
“What is the greater good?”
“The unexamined life is not worth
living”
– Important to examine laws, social
customs, and religious values.
– Socratic Method
Loyal to Athens & democracy
Tried and convicted for corrupting
city youth & not respecting the gods
Death by hemlock (poison)
Funny Philosophers
– Steve Martin as Socrates
Plato
Student of Socrates
The Academy
Rational Thought
Equality at birth
3 classes: workers, soldiers and
philosopher rulers
High regulation serves citizens’ best
interests
Aristotle
Student of Plato
Rule of law
Government of many
Despised tyranny – stood above
the law
“Golden Mean”
Lyceum taught all subjects
Ancient Roman Republic
Preserved and added to the Greek
ideas of Democratic government
Republic
Checks on Power
Written Codes of Laws
Ancient
Roman
Republic
Republic
Representative Government =
citizens elect leaders to make
governmental decisions
Indirect Democracy
Checks on Power
Senate – Patricians
2 Assemblies – Other classes
Veto
Dictator – appointed in crisis to have
absolute power.
Written Code of Laws
“A government of
Laws, not men”
12 tables (tablets)
– Commoners demand laws be written down
– Everyone will have equal access to laws
Innocent until proven guilty
Burden of proof on the accuser
Unreasonable laws could be set
aside
Judaism
One God
Obedient to God
God will protect and
provide a homeland
Scriptures
Torah = “Instructions”
Laws through stories and
history
Strict moral standard
Contributions
Laws enforced by courts
Rulers not above the law
Support rule of law
Individual responsible for
moral conduct
Faith and obedience to
God
Christianity
One God
Justice, morality & service to others
Equality & Dignity
Contributions
Foundation of Western culture
– Laws
– Social Structure
– Individual worth
– Social services
– Free will = respect for choice
Roots of Democracy
Greek
Roman
Judaism
Christianity
Direct
Democracy
Duty of
Citizens to
participate in
government
Legislature
Jury
Rule of
Law and
Reason
Republic
Veto
Checks on
Power
Written
Code of
Laws
Basic
Moral Law
Individual
responsibility
Individual
Worth
Morally
Just
Community
Equality
Human
Dignity
Service to
others
Moral and
Ethical
Behavior
Justice