第二讲 康德有关道德形而上学的基本原理

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Transcript 第二讲 康德有关道德形而上学的基本原理

第二讲
康德有关道德形而上学的基本原理
为什么要讨论康德有关道德形而上学的基本原理?
康德形而上学的道德原理是有关道德基本属性的思考,
有助于增进有关伦理的思维和方法训练。
基本概念及其逻辑关系:
理性(reason)、良知(good will)、义务(duty)、定律
(maxim)和绝对指令(categorical imperative)。
康德道德法则的三个定律: 普世性、人为目的和主体自主
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1. 第一定律:普世性
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There is therefore but one categorical imperative, namely, this:
Act only on that maxim whereby thou canst at the same time will
that it should become a universal law.
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只有这样一个绝对指令,只能按照这样的定律去做事,你
希望这一定律同时成为普世规则。
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"How would it be if my maxim were a universal law?"
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如果我的定律成为普世规则,那会怎么样?
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"Is it a necessary law for all rational beings that they should
always judge of their actions by maxims of which they can
themselves will that they should serve as universal laws?"
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理性人应当用这样的定律去衡量其行为:我是否希望这成
为普世法则?
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“I am never to act otherwise than so that I could also will that
my maxim should become a universal law.”
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除非我愿意把我的行为准则变成普遍法则,否则,我不会
如此行动。
2. 第二定律:人为目的而非手段。
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“……man and generally any rational being exists as an end in
himself, not merely as a means to be arbitrarily used by this or
that will, but in all his actions, whether they concern himself or
other rational beings, must be always regarded at the same time
as an end.” “So act as to treat humanity, whether in thine own
person or in that of any other, in every case as an end withal,
never as means only.”
3.第三定律: 个体自主是形成普世法则的动力和基础

第三定律是第一、第二公式的基础。

“What else then can freedom of the will be but autonomy, that
is, the property of the will to be a law to itself ? But the
proposition: ‘The will is in every action a law to itself," only
expresses the principle: ’To act on no other maxim than that
which can also have as an object itself as a universal law.”

“Now this is precisely the formula of the categorical imperative
and is the principle of morality, so that a free will and a will
subject to moral laws are one and the same.”

“自主就是意志自身成为法律,除了自主之外,还有什么
是自由呢?然而‘在每个行为中,意志就是它自身法律’
只是表达了这样的命题:依据(也只能依据)那些能成为
普适法律的行为准则行事。这就是绝对指令的形态和道德
原则,所以,自由意志和受道德法则支配的意志是一回
事。”
康德道德法则的检验

1.理性失效或理性不及
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(1)爆竹
(2)赌博
(3)强力
(4)饮酒文化
(5)送礼
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2.理性过度:以禁酒令为例
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“After one year from the ratification of this article the manufacture, sale, or
transportation of intoxicating liquors within, the importation thereof into,
or the exportation thereof from the United States and all territory subject to
the jurisdiction thereof for beverage purposes is hereby prohibited.”