Leadership Unit 3x

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Transcript Leadership Unit 3x

“. . . sawu bona.
Literally it means ‘I see you.’
. . . you might reply by saying
sikhona,
which translates into English as ‘I am here.’
The order of the exchange is significant.
It means that until you see me I do not exist;
when you do see me, you bring me into existence.
. . . [this] s part of what is called ubuntu, . . .
‘a person is a person because of other people.’ ”
Servanthood: Leadership for the Third Millennium
By Bennett J. Sims
What Are Ethics?
• Ethics are NOT morals
• They are an outgrowth of morality
• Ethics are actions based on concepts
of right and wrong
“A Leader Has High Ethics: Building Trust
with Your Followers”
Sheila Murray Bethel
Ineffective vs. Unethical
Leadership
• BAD leadership can be ineffective or
unethical or both (Kellerman)
– Ineffective
• Incompetent
• Rigid
• Intemperate
– Unethical
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Callous
Corrupt
Insular
Evil
Ethical Dilemmas
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Les Misérables
The Argumentative Indian
Satyagraha
Billy Budd
Miss Evers’ Boys
Values Approaches to
Leading Ethically
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The Utilitarian Approach
The Rights Approach
The Fairness or Justice Approach
The Common Good Approach
The Virtue Approach
—Velasquez, Andre, Shanks, Meyer, and Meyer
“Thinking Ethically: A Framework for Moral Decision Making”
Utilitarian Approach
• Jeremy Bentham, John Stuart Mill,
19th century
• Ethical actions are those that provide
the greatest balance of good over evil;
an action is morally right if and only if
it produces at least as much good
(utility) for all people affected by the
action as any alternative action the
person could do instead.
Rights Approach
• John Locke, Immanuel Kant, 18th
century
• People possess absolute rights, and
actions which violate these rights
are unethical; e.g., it is a violation of
human dignity to use people in ways
they do not freely choose.
• Other rights—to truth, to privacy, not
to be injured, to what is agreed
Fairness or Justice Approach
• Aristotle
• “equals should be treated equally
and unequals unequally.”
—Aristotle
• “each getting what he or she is due.”
—Cambridge Dictionary of Philosophy
Common Good Approach
• Plato, Aristotle, Cicero
• Common good “refers to those
arrangements that promote the full
flourishing of everyone in the
community.”
—Cambridge Dictionary of Philosophy
Virtue Approach
• Aristotle, Plato, and Aquinas
(Renaissance)
• Assumes there are certain ideals toward
which we should strive, which provide for
the full development of our humanity.
• Classical virtues: courage, wisdom,
temperance, justice (and piety for
Aristotle)
• Renaissance virtues: reason, and Aquinas
adds theological virtues—faith, hope,
charity
Determining the
Ethical Course?
The authors of the article suggest asking ourselves
five questions when considering what action will be
the ethical course, and thus consider all five
approaches:
1. Which alternative leads to the best overall
consequences?
2. What rights are involved and which alternative
best respects those rights?
3. Which alternative does not show favoritism or
discrimination?
4. Which alternative advances the common good?
5. Which alternative develops moral virtues?
Universal Human Values
Finding an Ethical Common Ground
—R. Kidder
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Love
Truthfulness
Fairness
Freedom
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Unity
Tolerance
Responsibility
Respect for Life
Check the time!
• If 20–30 minutes remain, go on to
“Whom to Choose.”
Whom to Choose?
The 25 patients include:
• A baby
• The baby’s parents
• The baby’s
grandparents
• 2 toddlers, ages 2 and
3, one with Down’s
Syndrome
• 5 school-age children,
ages 5, 6, 8, 11, and 14
• A single mother of two
• 2 thirty-something
couples
• A teacher
• 2 of the medical
office employees
• 3 recent retirees
• The couple
who own the
convenience
store/gas station