Kingdom Plantae

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Transcript Kingdom Plantae

Kingdom Plantae
Biology
Kingdom Plantae
Multi-cellular
 Autotrophic
 Eukaryotic
 Cell walls made of cellulose
 Store food in the form of starch
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 Have
chloroplasts containing
chlorophyll
 Most are terrestrial although there
are exceptions
Kingdom Plantae
Nonvascular Plants------ Vascular Plants
Have no true stem, leaves, or roots
Seedless
Seeded
Gymnosperm
Angiosperm
Monocot
Dicot
Nonvascular
 No
vessels
 No roots
 No stems
 No leaves
 Ex: Mosses and
liverworts
Vascular
 Have
vessels to
transport food and
water
 They have roots,
stems or leaves
 Ex: grass, corn,
trees, flowers,
bushes
 Xylem:
transports water
 Phloem: transports food & nutrients
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Seedless plants (e.g., ferns) have a vascular
system but reproduce using spores.
Seed Plants-reproduce using seeds
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Gymnosperms have seeds that
are not enclosed.
"naked seeds"
cone bearing plants (seeds grow
on cones)
needle like leaves
usually stay green year round
wind pollinated
Examples: pine trees &
evergreens
Angiosperms are the most successful group
of plants
 They have co-evolved with insects to
improve pollination.
 flowering plants
 seeds are enclosed, usually in a fruit
 most are pollinated by birds & bees
 have finite growing seasons
 Examples: grasses, tulips, oaks, dandelions
 Divided into two main groups: Monocots &
Dicots
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Monocots
Angiosperms have 1
seed leaf (cotyledon)
 parallel veins on leaves
 3 part symmetry for
flowers
 fibrous roots
 Example: lilies, onions,
corn, grasses, wheat
 Vascular tissue
scattered
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Dicots
Angiosperms that have 2
seed leaves (cotyledons)
 net veins on leaves
 flowers have 4-5 parts
 taproots
 Examples: trees and
ornamental flowers
 Vascular tissue arranged
in a ring
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Success of Angiosperms
Transport gametes over great distances.
 Efficient dispersal via fruit.
 Tough, water resistant leaves for survival
in hostile environments.
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Pollination
Birds are
attracted to red
flowers.
 Bees can see
colors that
humans cannot.
 Moth-pollinated
flowers are
white and
bloom at night.

Many insects are attracted to
odors. One species smells like
rotting meat and is pollinated by
flies.
 Flowers are often shaped so that
non-pollinators cannot reach
nectar or pollen. For example,
hummingbird-pollinated flowers
are long, and shaped like the bill
of a hummingbird.
 Wind-pollinated flowers are small,
have no petals and little color and
do not produce nectar.
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Problems living in a terrestrial
ecosystem
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Support - in water, the plant is held up.
On land, a support system is required.
Getting Water and Nutrients
Aquatic plants are surrounded by water and
nutrients so most cells can just absorb them the
environment. Terrestrial plants require a system for
collecting and transporting water.
 Plants developed root systems that can collect and
transport water. Some plants have shallow roots
which spread out to collect water.
 Water carrying minerals from the roots can travel
to all parts of the plant and food made in the
leaves can travel to non-photosynthetic parts of the
plant.
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Drying Out
Leaves are covered by a
waterproof outer layer
called the cuticle.
 Openings in the leaves
called stomata allow
passage of gases for
photosynthesis but can be
closed when it is too
warm.
 Gymnosperms have very
narrow leaves to minimize
water loss.
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Spreading Gametes
Spores – tiny reproductive cells are carried
long distance by the wind
 Seeds:
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– The embryo inside the seed is surrounded by a
tough, drought-resistant, protective seed coat.
Food packaged in the seed provides energy for
the young plant until it can grow above the soil
and begin photosynthesizing.
– Adaptations of seeds help in their dispersal.
Some seeds are carried by wind, stick to the fur
of animals or are eaten.