The Biosphere and its Biomes

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Transcript The Biosphere and its Biomes

The Biosphere and its Biomes
The Study of Ecology
 The scientific study of organisms and
between organisms and their environments.
 Biotic- living factors in an environment
 Abiotic- nonliving factors in an environment
Key Abiotic Factors
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Sunlight
Water
Temperature
Soil- product of abiotic factors (ice, rain, wind) and
the actions of living things (microorganisms,
plants, worms, etc.) on rocks and minerals.
 Wind
 Severe Disturbances
Identify Specific Key Abiotic Factors
5 Levels of Ecological Study
 Individual Organism
 Populations- group of organisms (of the same
species) living in the same area
 Communities- all of the organisms inhibiting a
particular area
 Ecosystems- abiotic + biotic factors in an area
 Biosphere- broadest level of ecological study; sum
of all of the earth’s ecosystems (biotic and abiotic
factors)
Identify 5 Levels of Ecological Study
Biomes
 Major type of terrestrial ecosystems that
cover large regions of Earth (8 land biomes).
 Characterized by specific biotic (plants &
animals) and abiotic factors.
Tropical Rain Forest
 Warm year-round (near the equator)
 LOTS of rain
 Diverse life
Savanna
 Tropical regions of Africa, Australia, & South
America
 Grasslands with scattered trees
 Warm; wet & dry seasons
Desert
 VERY dry (less than 30 cm per year!)
 Hot or cold (deserts in Asia)
Chaparral
 Temperate coastal biome
 Dense evergreen shrubs
 Mild, rainy winters & hot, dry summers
Temperate Grassland
 Deep, nutrient-rich soil that supports a
variety of plants
 No woody shrubs and trees
 “Prairies”
Temperate Deciduous Forest
 Deciduous trees (trees that drop their leaves
each year)
 4 seasons
Coniferous Forest (Taiga)
 Cone-bearing evergreen trees
 Long, cold winters with heavy snow
Tundra
 VERY cold, high winds
 Permafrost- permanently frozen subsoil
Biomes Project
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Draw a picture of a polar bear.
What does it eat?
What is its habitat?
Who has been to the artic?
– How do you know what a polar bear acts like
then?
Your Zoo Proposal
 5 biomes
– 2 animals
– 5 plant species
 Things to consider…
– 1) How do you maintain the climate?
– 2) Abiotic factors (sunlight, shade, air quality,
water, etc)
Your Zoo Proposal Requirements
 Map of the zoo
 Written proposal
 Info poster for each of the 5 habitats (what
will be included at the beginning of each
biome)
Food Chains
 What did you eat for dinner last night?
– Heterotroph or autotroph?
Food Chains
 Food chain- Pathway
of food transfer from
one trophic level to
another.
 Trophic level- feeding
level
Food Web
 The patter of feeding represented by
interconnected and branching food chains in
an ecosystem.
Energy Flow Through Ecosystems
 There is a limited amount of energy
available in an ecosystem– an “energy
budget” that is divided among the trophic
levels.
 What determines the “energy budget”?
Energy Pyramid
 Emphasizes the energy loss from one
trophic level to the next.
 Rule of 10- Only 10% of the energy is
transferred from one trophic level to the
next; rest is lost as heat.
Activity
 The crackers represent 100 “units” of energy from
the sun.
 Get in groups of 4.
 Each student should choose a label from the bag.
 Identify your trophic level.
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Plant= producer
Grasshopper= primary consumer
Rat= secondary consumer
Hawk= tertiary consumer
Activity
 Rule of 10- An average of 10% of the energy
in 1 trophic level transfers to the next level.
 Model this energy transfer process by
passing the appropriate amount of “energy”
(crackers) to the next trophic level.
Activity
 What amount of “energy” was passed on to
each trophic level?
– Grasshopper?
– Rat?
– Hawk?
 Why do higher trophic levels (i.e. the hawk)
contain fewer individuals?
Global Warming
 Atmospheric CO2 levels have risen
dramatically.
 Why?
– Burning of wood
– Burning of fossil fuels
– Deforestation
Global Warming
 CO2 and the Greenhouse Effect
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Global Warming (the overall rise in
Earth’s average temperature)
Possible Effects of Global Warming
 Melting of glaciers & polar ice caps, raising
sea levels & flooding low-lying coastal
areas.
 Changing precipitation patterns (more
hurricanes)
 Shifting biome boundaries, affecting species
that live there.