What is a plant? - Effingham County Schools

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Transcript What is a plant? - Effingham County Schools

Bell Ringer
Section 22-1
Review of Unit Three
Name Five major characteristics of the Fungi Kingdom:
1.
Eukaryotes- Cells have a nucleus
2.
Have a cell wall made of chitin
3. Mostly Multicellular (except for yeast which is unicellular
4. Heterotrophs- AKA Consumers. Fungi are decomposers
5. Some reproduce sexually and some reproduce asexually
How is this different than the Plant Kingdom?
Go to
Section:
Introduction to Plants
What is a plant?
A. Multicellular – composed of more than 1 cell
B. Eukaryotic – cells contain a nucleus
C. Autotrophic – most carry out photosynthesis
D. Cell walls made of cellulose
E. Reproduce sexually and asexually
•
•
In Sexual Reproduction– plants create egg and sperm
cells
Asexual reproduction - can reproduce by propagation
(fragmentation) – cuttings taken from plant and allowed
to root - identical to parent
Generalized Plant Life Cycle
Section 22-1
Haploid
Diploid
MEIOSIS
Spores
(haploid)
Gametophyte Plant (haploid)
Sporophyte Plant (diploid)
Sperm
(haploid)
Eggs
(haploid)
FERTILIZATION
Go to
Section:
II. Why are plants important?
A. Base of land food chains
B. Provide shade and shelter for animals
C. Produce oxygen
D. Important sources of medications
III. What do plants need in order to survive?
A. Sunlight
B. Water and Minerals
C. Gas Exchange – take in CO2 and release O2
D. Movement of water and minerals
IV. How did today’s plants evolve?
A. Probably from organisms similar to today’s
multicellular freshwater algae
B. Evidence for this: plants and algae share1. Similar life cycles (alternation of
generations)
2. Cellulose in cell walls
3. Similar pigments; like chlorophyll
4. DNA evidence
V. What are the four major groups of plants that
exist today?
A. Bryophytes (nonvascular, seedless – Ex: mosses)
B. Ferns (vascular, seedless – Ex. Ferns)
C. Gymnosperms (vascular, cone-bearing plants – Ex: pine
tree)
D. Angiosperms (vascular, flowering plants – Ex: dogwood
tree, rose)
Bryophytes
Ferns
Gymnosperms
Angiosperms
Figure 22-7 The Diversity of Plants
Section 22-1
Cone-bearing plants
760 species
Ferns and
their relatives
11,000 species
Mosses and
their relatives
15,600 species
Go to
Section:
Flowering
plants
235,000 species
Why are plants classified into these groups? 2 main
reasons.
A. Based on 3 important physical features
1. Whether or not they have vascular tissue
A. Vascular Tissue: conducts water and minerals
2. Whether or not they produce seeds or spores
3. Whether or not they produce flowers
B. Project Deep Green
1. Since 1994, Biologists from 12 nations
have been classifying plants by comparing
DNA sequences
Figure 22–6 A Cladogram of Plant
Groups
Section 22-1
Flowering
plants
Cone-bearing
plants
Ferns and
their relatives
Flowers; Seeds
Enclosed in Fruit
Mosses and
their relatives
Seeds
Water-Conducting
(Vascular) Tissue
Green algae
ancestor
Go to
Section:
Name 3 characteristics of the plant kingdom.
Scientist believe all plants probably evolved from this
common ancestor.
What evidence supports this?
What group of plants is the most primitive?
What group of plants is the most successful?
Bryophytes and Ferns
I. What are the characteristics of Bryophytes?
A. Seedless- reproduce using spores not seeds
B. Non-vascular – do not have xylem and phloem Rely on osmosis and diffusion to move water
and nutrients / must live in wet habitats!
C. Grow just a few centimeters off the ground
D. Depend on water for reproduction – sperm swims
to egg
III. How do bryophytes reproduce?
A. Fertilization occurs when sperm swims thru water
to egg – gametophyte forms
B. Gametophyte is dominant
C. Sporophyte is dependent upon the gametophyte
II. What are the 3 major groups of bryophytes?
A. Mosses
B. Liverworts
C. Hornworts
Moss
Liverwort
Hornwort
Bryophyte: Stomata (pores)
The Structure of a Moss
Section 22-2
Capsule
Sporophyte
Stalk
Stem
Gametophyte
Leaf
Rhizoid
Go to
Section:
Bryophyte: Pseudo Leaves
Bryophyte Anatomy
Rhizoids, haploid
Bryophyte Anatomy
Gametophyte
makes gametes
(sperm and eggs),
haploid
Sperm have tails to swim
in the moisture on the
plant to another nearby
plant in order to fertilize
the egg.
Bryophyte Anatomy
Fertilized eggs
(diploid) grow into a
sporophyte
The sporophyte (diploid)
grows up from the top of the
gametophyte (haploid)
Bryophyte Anatomy
The
sporophyte
(diploid) is
made up of a
stalk and
capsule…
The sporophyte (diploid)
goes through meiosis and
released spores (haploid)
from the capsule.
Moss: Sporophyte growing from gametophyte
Moss covers almost every available surface in rainforests
Bryophyte Anatomy
Sperm
Sperm being released
Eggs for sperm to fertilize
Bryophyte Anatomy
Capsule
Sporophyte
(Diploid)
Stalk (Seta)
Gametophyte (body
with “leaves”)
Gametophyte
(Haploid)
Rhizoid
IV. What are mosses used for?
a. Dried sphagnum mosses used in gardening and
potted plants
Moss is used in gardening and
planting because it is extremely
absorbent
IV. What are mosses used for?
a. Dried sphagnum mosses used in gardening and
potted plants
b. Peat – accumulated moss used as fuel
Peat (accumulated
dead moss) is cut
from the ground and
used as fuel in many
European countries
Bog
1. Bodies of the Bogs
2. Bodies of the Bog
Prevents decomposition of
dead organisms
The Structure of a Moss
Section 22-2
Capsule
Sporophyte
Stalk
Stem
Gametophyte
Leaf
Rhizoid
Go to
Section:
Figure 22–6 A Cladogram of Plant
Groups
Section 22-1
Flowering
plants
Cone-bearing
plants
Ferns and
their relatives
Flowers; Seeds
Enclosed in Fruit
Mosses and
their relatives
Seeds
Water-Conducting
(Vascular) Tissue
Green algae
ancestor
Go to
Section:
Ferns: Seedless Vascular Plants
IV. What are the characteristics of ferns and their relatives?
A. Seedless- reproduce using spores
B. True vascular tissue – have xylem and phloem
C. Can grow tall because of lignin and vascular tissue
D. Depend on water for reproduction – sperm swims to
egg
VII. How do seedless vascular plants reproduce?
a. Fertilization occurs when sperm swims thru water
to egg
b. Sporophyte is dominant
c. Sporophyte develops from the gametophyte
VI. What are the major groups of seedless vascular
plants?
a. Ferns
b. Club mosses
c. Horsetails
Tree fern – native to East Indies
Boston Fern
Club moss (“miniature pines”)
Horsetails – also
called scouring
rushes
The Life Cycle of a Fern
Section 22-3
MEIOSIS
Sporangium
(2N)
Haploid gametophyte (N)
Diploid sporophyte (2N)
Frond
Spores
(N)
Mature
sporophyte
(2N)
Developing
sporophyte
(2N)
Young
gametophyte
(N)
Mature
gametophyte
(N)
male
Sperm
Gametophyte
(N)
Egg
embryo
(2N)
female
FERTILIZATION
Go to
Section:
Alternation of Generations: Ferns
Ferns
Sporophyte =
dominant (most
conspicuous)
individual
Gametophyte = small,
fragile structure most
people (even
botanists!) never
notice
Fern Gametophytes
Alternation of Generations: Ferns
Frond = diploid
sporophyte
Sorus = collection
of sporangia
where meiosis
occurs
Sori on a Fern Sporophyll
Pinna
Sori
Figure 22–6 A Cladogram of Plant
Groups
Section 22-1
Flowering
plants
Cone-bearing
plants
Ferns and
their relatives
Flowers; Seeds
Enclosed in Fruit
Mosses and
their relatives
Seeds
Water-Conducting
(Vascular) Tissue
Green algae
ancestor
Go to
Section:
Seed Plants Gymnosperms and Angiosperms
I. Gymnosperms – do not produce flowers or fruits
but do produce seeds and have vascular tissue.
A. Largest group of gymnosperms are the
conifers. Ex; pine trees
1. Conifers have 2 types of cones; male and
female
2. Male cones produce pollen that carries
sperm cells
3. Female cones produce eggs
Seed Plants Gymnosperms and Angiosperms
I.
Gymnosperms – do not produce flowers or fruits but do
produce seeds.
A. Largest group of gymnosperms are the conifers. Ex;
pine trees
1. Conifers have 2 types of cones; male and female
2. Male cones produce pollen that carries sperm cells
3. Female cones produce eggs
4. Pollination occurs by the wind: not dependent on
water
5. After pollination, the fertilized egg develops into a
seed.
Seed Cones (female)
and
Pollen Cones (male)
Figure 22–19 The Structure of a
Seed
Section 22-4
Seed coat
Seed
Embryo
Wing
B
Stored
food supply
A
Go to
Section:
Welwitschia
It only grows in a remote region of southwestern Africa in the Namib and
Mossamedes Deserts. The leaves lie on the ground and as they flap about
in the wind they become split and frayed. Welwitschias absorb moisture in
the form of dense fog that flows over the Namib Desert.
Cycads
B. Conifers are an important source for building
materials and paper products
II. Angiosperms – produce flowers, fruits, and seeds
and are the most abundant plants on Earth.
A. Two main types of angiosperms: Monocots and
Dicots
Figure 22–25 Comparison of
Monocots and Dicots
Section 22-5
Monocots
Go to
Section:
Dicots
Seeds
1 seed
leaf
Two
Leaves
Parallel
veins
Branched
veins
Flowers
Floral parts in
multiples of 3
Floral parts in
multiples
of 4 or 5
Stems
Vascular
bundles
scattered
Vascular
bundles
in a ring
Roots
Fibrous roots
Taproot
B. Pollination occurs mostly by animals (best
adaptation!)
Many angiosperms have mutual relationships with
animals like insects, bats, or birds. As animals gather
nectar from flowers, they also transfer pollen from
flower to flower. Many species are flower specific- only
gather nectar from one type of flower. After pollination
and fertilization, seeds develop inside protective fruits.
C. Angiosperms are the main source of food for all
animals on earth including humans. Rice, wheat, barley,
grasses – all are angiosperms. They are also used in
medicines, clothing and other products.
Figure 24–5 The Structure
of a Flower
Section 24-1
Stamen
Anther
Filament
Ovule
Stigma
Style
Carpel
Ovary
Petal
Sepal
I. Carpel – female
a. Stigma – traps pollem
b. Style supports stigma;
forms a
pollen tube
c. Ovary – becomes fruit
d. Ovule- becomes seeds
II. Stamen – male
a. Anther- produces
pollen
b. Filament- supports
anther
III. Petals – attract pollinators
IV. Sepals – protect flower bud
while it is developing
From flower to fruit
Flowers, fruits and seeds…
III. Why are seed plants more successful that spore producing
plants?
is protected inside seeds and fruits
so the young of seed plants tend to
survive better. The spores of ferns
and mosses must land in a wet
habitat. If they do not, they will die.
B. Sperm does not have to swim thru water- it is carried by wind or
animals during pollination. This enables seed plants to live in dryer
habitats. It also increases reproductive success.
Figure 24–1 Evolution of the
Gametophyte and the Sporophyte
Section 24-1
Gametophyte (N)
Sporophyte (2N)
Bryophytes
Ferns
Seed plants
I. Basic Structures in Plants
A. Seed – embryo of a plant that is protected by a
covering and surrounded by a food supply
1. Can remain dormant for many years
2. Environmental factors (temperature and moisture)
end dormancy
3. Many modified for easy dispersal
a. Light weight - can float in water and in the
air
b. Textured seed coats that stick to animal fur
c.“Winged” seeds – can “fly” long distances
away from parent plant
d. Angiosperm seeds are surrounded by fleshy
fruits that are eaten by animals allowing
seeds to be dispersed
e. Seeds of Gymnosperms develop inside of
protective cones
Figure 22–19 The Structure of a
Seed
Section 22-4
Seed coat
Seed
Embryo
Wing
B
Stored
food supply
A
Go to
Section:
B. Vascular Tissues- system of “tubes” throughout a
plant; two types – xylem and phloem
1. Xylem - transports water from the roots to the
rest of the plant
2. Phloem - transports the products of
photosynthesis (sugars) from the leaves to the
rest of the plant
C. Roots – absorb water and nutrients, anchor the plant,
store food
D. Stems – supports plant, contains vascular tissue to
transport water and nutrients between the roots and
leaves
Figure 23–7 The Structure of a Root
Section 23-2
Pg. 585
Epidermis
Ground tissue
(cortex)
Root hairs
Phloem
Xylem
Zone of maturation
Zone of
elongation
Apical
meristem
Root
cap
Vascular
Cylinder
Figure 23–1 Root, Stem, and
Leaf Tissues
Section 23-1
Leaf
Stem
Root
Dermal tissue
Vascular tissue
Ground tissue
1. Two types of growth occur in stems and roots
a. Primary – growth from the tips of the roots and the
shoots at areas called apical meristem
b. Secondary – growth in the width of the plant. (tree
rings)
Figure 23–15 Layers of a Tree
Trunk
Section 23-3
Wood
Bark
Cork
Contains old,
nonfunctioning
phloem that
protects the tree
Xylem:
Heartwood
Contains old,
nonfunctioning
xylem that helps
support the tree
Cork Cambium
Produces
protective layer
of cork
Phloem
Transports sugars
produced by
photosynthesis
Xylem: Sapwood
Contains active xylem
that transports water
and minerals
Vascular Cambium
Produces new xylem
and phloem, which
increase the width of
the stem
E. Leaves carry out photosynthesis and transpiration
1. Epidermis - outer layer that covers the leaf. “skin”
2. Cuticle – waxy covering over the epidermis that
prevents the plant from drying out
3. Mesophyll - middle layer of cells that carry out
photosynthesis and exchange of the gases CO2
and O2
4. Stomata – openings on the bottom of the leaf that
allow gases to enter and leave
5. Guard cells – cells around the stomata that open
and close the stomata
a. When the guard cells are full of water, the stomata is
open. When they do not have water the stomata is
closed. (This helps the plant conserve water when it
is dry.
b. Stomata are usually closed at night. (no sun = no
photosynthesis)
Figure 23–18 The Internal Structure
of a Leaf
Section 23-4
Veins
Cuticle
Epidermis
mesophyll
Xylem
Phloem
mesophyll
Epidermis
Stomata
Guard
cells
Vein
Transpiration
Section 23-5
A
B
Evaporation of water
molecules out of leaves.
Pull of water molecules upward
from the roots.
Figure 24–5 The Structure
of a Flower
Section 24-1
Stamen
Anther
Filament
Ovule
Stigma
Style
Carpel
Ovary
Petal
Sepal
I. Carpel – female
a. Stigma – traps pollen
b. Style supports stigma;
forms a pollen tube for
sperm to reach egg
c. Ovary – becomes fruit
d. Ovule- eggs that
becomes seeds
II. Stamen – male
a. Anther- produces pollen
b. Filament- supports
anther
c. pollen – carries sperm
III. Petals – attract pollinators
IV. Sepals – protect flower bud
while it is developing
23-4 Structure and Function of
Leaves
Figure 22–6 A Cladogram of Plant
Groups
Section 22-1
Flowering
plants
Cone-bearing
plants
Ferns and
their relatives
Flowers; Seeds
Enclosed in Fruit
Mosses and
their relatives
Seeds
Water-Conducting
(Vascular) Tissue
Green algae
ancestor
Go to
Section:
Figure 22–6 A Cladogram of Plant
Groups
Section 22-1
Flowering
plants
What
organism do
scientist
believe all
plants
evolved
from?
Cone-bearing
plants
Ferns and
their relatives
Flowers; Seeds
Enclosed in Fruit
Mosses and
their relatives
Seeds
Water-Conducting
(Vascular) Tissue
?????????
Green Algae
Go to
Section:
Figure 22–6 A Cladogram of Plant
Groups
Section 22-1
Fern and their
First group of plants relatives
to evolve vascular
tissue?
Flowering
plants
Cone-bearing
plants
????
Flowers; Seeds
Enclosed in Fruit
Mosses and
their relatives
Seeds
Water-Conducting
(Vascular) Tissue
Green algae
ancestor
Go to
Section:
Figure 22–6 A Cladogram of Plant
Groups
Section 22-1
Flowering
plants
??????????
Ferns and
their relatives
Flowers; Seeds
Enclosed in Fruit
Mosses and
their relatives
Seeds
Water-Conducting
(Vascular) Tissue
Green algae
ancestor
Go to
Section:
Gymnosperms
What group of plants
were the first to
evolve seeds?
The Seed
Flowering
plants
Cone-bearing
plants
Ferns and
their relatives
Flowers; Seeds
Enclosed in Fruit
Mosses and
their relatives
Seeds
????????????
Water-Conducting
(Vascular) Tissue
Green algae
ancestor
What characteristic
evolved at this point
to bring fourth conebearing plants?
Conifers are found in which of the four
groups of plants?
Gymnosperms
This plant belongs in what group of
plants?
Bryophyte
Fill in the Blank
In bryophytes…..
Fertilization occurs when
Sperm
______________
swims thru water to egg
– gametophyte forms
How does pollination usually
occur in angiosperms?
Animals
What group of plants does this organism
belong?
Angiosperms
Name the two parts of a
plant’s life cycle
Gametophyte stage and Sporophyte stage
How does pollination occur
usually in gymnosperms?
By Wind
Group of plants that is Seedless but
has vascular tissues
Ferns
Group of Plants that Have Vascular
Tissue and Seeds enclosed in a
fruit
Angiosperms
How will this
seed be
dispersed?
Wind
Monocot or Dicot?
Dicot b/c of the branched veins in
the leaf
Part of the flower that
attracts pollinators
Petals
The part of the flower
that protects the
immature flower as a bud
Sepals
Stamen
Male reproductive
part of the flower
The stamen is made up
of two parts
The female parts of
the flower make up
the ____________
Carpel or Pistil
Carpel or Pistil
Stigma
Style
Ovule
Anther
What becomes the fruit of a
flower after fertilization?
The Ovary
Waxy covering of a leaf that
prevents the leaf from drying out
Cuticle
Scientist believe that all plants probably evolved from a
common ancestor to today’s _____________________
Green Algae
A
c
d
E
F
B