Introduction to plant science
Introduction to plant science
Same rules as Mr. Adams
› Raise your hand
› Be in your seat when the bell rings
› Take notes
› Don’t talk when I am talking or presenting
On a piece of paper, list items that you see
in the classroom that correspond with
Define the chapter terms on an exam
with 90% accuracy.
Identify the four major parts of a plant
and their functions on an exam with 95%
Distinguish the difference between
annual, perennial, and biennial plants on
an exam with 90% accuracy.
Distinguish between photosynthesis and
respiration on a quiz with 85% accuracy.
Compare monocot and dicot plants on
a quiz with 90% accuracy
Plants come from seeds. Each seed
contains a tiny plant waiting for the right
conditions to germinate, or start to grow
The process of a seed sprouting or
starting to grow
Seeds wait to germinate until three
needs are met: water, correct
temperature (warmth), and a good
location (such as in soil).
During its early stages of growth, the
seedling relies upon the food supplies
stored with it in the seed until it is large
enough for its own leaves to begin
making food through photosynthesis
The seedling's roots push down into the
soil to anchor the new plant and to
absorb water and minerals from the soil.
And its stem with new leaves pushes up
toward the light
The germination stage ends when a shoot
emerges from the soil.
But the plant is not done growing. It's just
Plants need water, warmth, nutrients from
the soil, and light to continue to grow
Plants are a group of living organisms
that are typically characterized by their
plant science—the science of plant
growth, care, and management
Plants include common groups such as
trees, herbs flowers and ferns and algae
There are some 300,000 different species
The ultimate source of energy and
organic material in nearly all habitats is
as a result of photosynthesis and carbon
fixation conducted by land plants and
The processes of plants radically changed
the composition of the Earth's atmosphere,
which maintains 20% of earth's oxygen.
Animals and most other organisms are
aerobic, relying on oxygen to create
internal energy to move and grow.
Plants produce complex kinds of antioxidants that have been shown to
reduce the occurrence of cancer.
For example the red in plants is due to
something called anthocyanins. This
protects the plant from sun damage and
may help people also.
Plants also provide a ready supply of
vitamin C and other vitamins that we need
to continue to grow and survive.
They need air, soil, water, light, and space to grow
Sunlight provides energy that it taken up
through the plant’s leaves.
This energy fuels the chemical process of
photosynthesis where the plant converts
water and carbon dioxide to
carbohydrates (plant food).
Light affects also another reverse
chemical process: plant respiration
where carbohydrates are converted into
energy and then oxygen is released
through the plants leaves as a byproduct.
While animals inhale oxygen and exhale
carbon dioxide, plants do the reverse
thing: they breathe carbon dioxide in
and oxygen out.
They breathe through stomates
(stomata), which are placed on the
leaves. Water acts as a solvent for the
two gases and transports them through
Water is essential because it moistures
the soil and dissolves important nutrients
that the plant needs in order to grow.
This nutrient-enriched water is then taken
up through the roots hairs and
transported through the plant.
Water is also needed to transport carbon
dioxide and oxygen through the plant.
soil—the outer layer of the earth’s crust that
supports plant growth
A plant needs essential nutrients in order
A nutrient that limits plant growth is
considered to be essential.
When plant growth is limited the plant life
cycle cannot be completed.
Nutrient- substances necessary for the
functioning of an organism
Each plant has a specific amount of
each nutrient that they need
When this need is not met they will have
a deficiency and can cause issue with
the growth of the plant
Strange coloration, stunted growth, or
multiple buds in plants could be signs
that soil is lacking nutrients
Three primary nutrients
› Macronutrients- the nutrients plants need the
most to survive
Three secondary nutrients
› Calcium (Ca)
› Magnesium (Mg)
› Sulfur (S)
Micronutrients- are only needed in tiny
› Chlorine (Cl)
› Copper (Cu)
› Iron (Fe)
› Manganese (Mn)
› Molybdenum (Mo)
› Zinc (Zn)
› Boron (B)
Lack of nutrients
› When there is a lack of nutrients, a fertilizer is
› fertilizer—a material that supplies nutrients to
› N, P, K all three must be present for a fertilizer
to be called a complete fertilizer
The proportions of N, P, K are known as
the fertilizer grade
› These are expressed as percentages
› 10-10-10 is 10% N, 10% P, 10% K
Temperature is also one of the crucial plant
growing needs. It has an effect on:
› Energy production
› Sugar storage
The plant growth stages of germination,
flowering and dormancy are induced by
An increase in temperature will trigger
germination and flowering.
A temperature decrease causes the
plants to enter dormancy.
On the other hand, rising temperature
will break dormancy and the plant
continues to grow and reproduce.
Roots act like straws absorbing water and
minerals from the soil.
Tiny root hairs stick out of the root, helping
in the absorption.
Roots can be very
Roots help to anchor the plant in the soil so
it does not fall over.
Roots also store extra food for future use.
A primary (radicle) root originates at the
lower end of the embryo of a seedling
› A taproot is formed when the primary root
continues to elongate downward.
A lateral, or secondary root is a side or
branch root which arises from another
do many things.
support the plant.
act like the plant's plumbing
system, conducting water and
nutrients from the roots and food in
the form of glucose from the leaves to
other plant parts.
can be herbaceous like the
bendable stem of a daisy or woody
like the trunk of an oak tree.
The three major internal parts of a stem
are the xylem, phloem, and cambium.
The xylem is responsible for the transport
(translocation) of water and soluble
mineral nutrients from the roots
throughout the plant.
It is also used to replace water lost during
transpiration and photosynthesis.
Phloem carries the products of
photosynthesis (sucrose and glucose)
from the leaves to other parts of the
The cambium is a meristem, which is a
site of cell division and active growth
An area of the stem where leaves are
located is called a node.
The area between nodes is called the
Most plants' food is made in their leaves.
Leaves are designed to capture sunlight
which the plant uses to make food through
a process called photosynthesis.
photosynthesis—the food-making process
The overall reaction of photosynthesis utilizes six
carbon dioxide molecules and six water molecules
to produce one sugar molecule (glucose) and six
chlorophyll, a green pigment found in
the leaves of plants (see the layer of
chlorophyll in the cross-section of a leaf
light (either natural sunlight or artificial
light, like from a light bulb)
carbon dioxide (CO2)(a gas found in the
air; one of the gases people and animals
breathe out when they exhale)
water (which the plant collects through
nutrients and minerals (which the plant
collects from the soil through its roots)
Plants make food in their leaves.
The leaves contain a pigment called
chlorophyll, which colors the leaves green.
Chlorophyll can make food the plant can
use from carbon dioxide, water, nutrients,
and energy from sunlight. This process is
respiration—the process by which plants
convert food to energy
Respiration process in plants is the intake
of carbon-dioxide and exhales oxygen
during the day as the plants gets energy
through the photosynthesis process in
which the carbon-dioxide is converted
into sugars using the sun light energy, as
this process uses carbon-dioxide and
water, the resulting gas oxygen is given
out as a waste product.
During the night, as the photosynthesis
process cannot be happening without
sun, so it exhales the carbon-dioxide
transpiration—the process by which a plant
loses water vapor
It occurs chiefly at the leaves while their stomata
are open for the passage of CO2 and O2 during
Flowers are the reproductive part of most
Flowers contain pollen and tiny eggs called
After pollination of the flower and
fertilization of the ovule, the ovule develops
into a fruit.
› Fruit provides a covering for seeds.
› Fruit can be fleshy like an apple or hard like
› Seeds contain new plants. Seeds form in fruit.
What are the parts of a flower?
Peduncle: The stalk of a flower.
Receptacle: The part of a flower stalk
where the parts of the flower are
Sepal: The outer parts of the flower
(often green and leaf-like) that enclose
a developing bud.
Petal: The parts of a flower that are often
Stamen: The pollen producing part of a
flower, usually with a slender filament
supporting the anther. (Male part of the
Anther: The part of the stamen where
pollen is produced.
Pistil: The ovule producing part of a
flower. The ovary often supports a long
style, topped by a stigma. The mature
ovary is a fruit, and the mature ovule is a
seed. (Female part of the plant)
Stigma: The part of the pistil where pollen
Ovary: The enlarged basal portion of the
pistil where ovules are produced
To be pollinated, pollen must be moved
from a stamen to the stigma.
When pollen from a plant's stamen is
transferred to that same plant's stigma, it is
pollen from a plant's stamen is
transferred to a different plant's
stigma, it is called cross-pollination.
The plants must be of the same species.
For example, only pollen from a daisy can
pollinate another daisy. Pollen from a rose
or an apple tree would not work.
› A plant that has only one seed leaf
› A plant that has two seed leaves
Starts from a seed and ends when the
› annual—a plant that completes its life
cycle in one year or less
› biennial—a plant that needs two years to
complete its life cycle
› perennial—a plant that needs more than
two years to complete its life cycle
Perennial Purple Coneflower
Annual Plains Coreopsis
Now that we have learned about plants,
create your own plant. Make it to what
you think would make the BEST plant.
Must still use the basics to sustain plant
What is a