Athel Pine & Tamarix Threats, Management and

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Transcript Athel Pine & Tamarix Threats, Management and

Athel Pine & Tamarix
Threats, Management and Action
January 2012
Athel pine, BourkeMenindie
Course 2009
Kay Bailey
National Athel Pine Coordinator
National Athel Pine WoNS Program
Identification – 3 species
Management – control options
What you can do!
T. ramosissima, Nyah VIC
Weeds of National Significance
• The Australian Weed Strategy (AWS) (renamed from the 1997
National Weeds Strategy in 2007) is a multi jurisdictional
• Goal 2 of the AWS is to ‘Reduce the impact of
existing priority weed problems including weeds
issues of national significance - WoNS
• Approach – is robust and simple; treats agricultural,
forestry & environmental weeds equally to rank species
• In 1999, 20 species became WoNS
• Australian Government + all States / Territories are
supportive of and contribute to WoNS program
• Potential addition of new WoNS in 2012
National Athel Pine Program
• 1999 one of the 20 species declared Weeds of National Significance
• 2001 Athel pine National Strategy released (included other Tamarix species)
• Nov 2005 National Athel Pine Management
Committee (NAPMC) formed
• Dec 2006 National Coordinator appointed Full Time
• March 2009 launch of Athel pine National
Best Practice Management Manual
• Draft National Athel Pine Strategic Plan 2011-2015
(awaiting endorsement)
Launch of BPM Manual, Alice
Springs 2009
NAPMC field trip,
Mannum SA March 2011
Athel pine Finke River NT
• 3 Tamarix species in Australia
Tamarix aphylla
Tamarix ramosissima
Tamarix parviflora
Athel pine
Smallflower tamarisk
• Common names vary. Athel pine = Tamarix =
• Varying taxonomy over time (eg Tamarix pentandra =
T ramosissima)
Tools to assist
• Fact Sheet
• BPM Manual pages 10-11
1. Athel pine – Tamarix aphylla
• Tall evergreen tree (to 20m)
• Riparian - watercourses
• Weedy from Carnarvon WA to Bourke NSW; Central Australia
to Hughenden QLD; Menindee NSW to Leigh Creek SA
Athel pine planted as a
wind break – Copi Hollow,
Menindee, NSW 2009
Athel pine
Declared in all states, WoNS
Leaves aphylla = without leaves, minute
dull grey, sheath around fine branchlets.
Les Tanner
Kay Bailey
Les Tanner
Chris Brown
Bark mature trees thick, rough grey-brown
to black, new stems smooth and reddishbrown to grey-green.
Flowers pinkish-white, 5 flower petals,
flower spikes at end of previous year’s
2. Tamarisk (Tamarix ramosissima)
No legal status. Weedy in southern, inland NSW,
Murray River SA, northern VIC.
Flowers pinkish-white to purple, 5 petals,
end of current year’s branches
Sandy Leighton
Sandy Leighton
Tall deciduous to semi-deciduous shrub to 6m
Leaves small, smooth surface,
evenly thick from base to tip
T. ramosissima along the
edge of Lake Murphy, VIC
Jonah Gouldthorpe
Bark smooth, older stems
grey-brown, newer stems
3. Smallflower tamarisk (T. parviflora)
No legal status. Weedy in Avon Valley & south west WA.
Toodyay River WA
Barry A Rice
Weedy throughout riparian areas of
western and south western USA
Sandy Leighton
Tom Dudley
Bark new bark is brown-deep purple
Leaves distinctly thickened
toward the base
Flower pinkish-white, 4
Recorded Distribution
All Tamarix species in Australia
Why are we focussing on athel pine and Tamarix?
Increased surface soil salinity
- reduction in native vegetation
- expansion at expense of most
other vegetation
Reduced water quality
Reduced water quantity
– 1 athel pine or Tamarix plant can use up to 757 litres/day
– Reduced availability for stock, people, environment
Accelerated rusting of roofs, gutters, fences, buildings
Increased mustering costs
(X 6 compared to clear areas)
Reduced biodiversity of native plants &
Flooding & alteration of watercourses
with accumulated sediment.
Examples of areas of major impact:
• 620 km of the Finke River system NT has been
invaded by athel pine
• USA -10 species of Tamarix.
(1920’s 4,000 ha; mid-1960s 500,000 ha;
current - 1,000,000 ha and still spreading)
• Murray River system increasing spread
and reporting of weedy Tamarix ramosissima
over the past 2-3 years.
How can we control athel pine &
Tamarix spp?
• Understand life cycle and spread
Grows near water
Prolific seeders
Seed is viable for short period only
Need wet conditions to establish
Vegetative propagation is a significant means
of local spread
• Plan control effort by knowing
– Likely costs
– Resources required
– Location & density of the athel pine
(BPM Manual p20-22)
recruitment of athel
pine along banks of
Gascoyne River,
Carnarvon WA
Mechanical clearing
Best for large infestations or isolated trees where machinery
•Remove crown & taproot to at least 1m depth
Chris Brown
Chris Brown
•Follow up regrowth with herbicides
Jonah Gouldthorpe
Jonah Gouldthorpe
Mechanical clearing
Chemical - Herbicides
•Herbicide control of Tamarix spp. is fickle
•Need everything in your favour
•Comply with permits, labels and controlof-use legislation
•The BPM Manual (pages 27-29) contains
lists of permitted herbicides for each
control option & State
Foliar spray
Best for extensive seedlings & regrowth
<3m and following up regrowth after
mechanical control
•Good clean water
•Use wetter
•Good coverage
•Minimum 1 metre regrowth from roots
•Leave sprayed plants for 12 months
Basal bark
Useful for small
inaccessible infestations,
smooth-barked <10cm,
any time of year.
individuals only
•Clear sediment and
debris from stems
Cut stump
Useful for small, inaccessible infestations & sites for
selective control
•Cut low and level
•Treat stump within 30 seconds
Other control options
Stem injection / frilling
Hand pulling
Mount Isa QLD
– dieback
Lower Finke R, NT
Gemfields QLD
Decision support tree for Tamarix control (p32 BPM Manual)
Primary method
Basal bark or
foliar spray
Section 2.4.3
Stems >10
cm thick or
with rough
<45 cm tall
More than
10 mature
Cut Stump
Section 2.4.3
Hand pull
Section 2.4.4
Stems >10
cm thick or
with rough
Basal bark or
foliar spray
Section 2.4.3
Remove debris from flood zone if
Section 2.4.1
Follow-up method
Clean down vehicles and machinery on site Section 2.4.1
Is there good
of machinery?
Monitor and basal bark, cut stump or foliar spray regrowth at 1 m height
Monitor and basal bark, cut stump or foliar spray regrowth at 12-18 month intervals
Replace with local provenance plants as appropriate
Long term eradication
Cut Stump
Section 2.4.3
Section 2.4.2
Remove debris from flood zone if practicable
Section 2.4.1
Success factors
Adaptive, integrated approach using a number
of methods
• Duration of follow up required.
Regrowth following use of cut stump
on athel pines, Menindee School, NSW.
What you can do!
• Look out for high risk plantings (<100m from
watercourse, towns, homesteads, bores,
stockyards, etc)
• Record plants using GPS and take photos
• Record & report weedy populations
([email protected])
• Lodge specimens at the Herbarium
• Plan to remove athel pines over time.
Local and Regional Action
Your group, local government agency or regional body
- Provide identification and awareness information to
members / stakeholders;
- Encourage mapping and recording of athel pine and
other Tamarix species;
- Identify those at a higher risk of spread;
- Develop an action plan to remove over time those
higher risk plants and those that have already become
- Provide the mapping information to the National Athel
Pine Coordinator or Weed Contacts in each State.
Comments & Questions?
Prevent this scenario! Dense athel pine infestation on the lower Finke River, NT
Further contact:
08 89519213
[email protected]