Athel Pine & Tamarix Threats, Management and

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Transcript Athel Pine & Tamarix Threats, Management and

Athel Pine & Tamarix
Threats, Management and Action
January 2012
Athel pine, BourkeMenindie
Golf
Course 2009
Kay Bailey
National Athel Pine Coordinator
Overview
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National Athel Pine WoNS Program
Identification – 3 species
Impacts
Management – control options
What you can do!
T. ramosissima, Nyah VIC
Weeds of National Significance
• The Australian Weed Strategy (AWS) (renamed from the 1997
National Weeds Strategy in 2007) is a multi jurisdictional
framework
• Goal 2 of the AWS is to ‘Reduce the impact of
existing priority weed problems including weeds
issues of national significance - WoNS
• Approach – is robust and simple; treats agricultural,
forestry & environmental weeds equally to rank species
• In 1999, 20 species became WoNS
• Australian Government + all States / Territories are
supportive of and contribute to WoNS program
• Potential addition of new WoNS in 2012
National Athel Pine Program
• 1999 one of the 20 species declared Weeds of National Significance
• 2001 Athel pine National Strategy released (included other Tamarix species)
• Nov 2005 National Athel Pine Management
Committee (NAPMC) formed
• Dec 2006 National Coordinator appointed Full Time
• March 2009 launch of Athel pine National
Best Practice Management Manual
• Draft National Athel Pine Strategic Plan 2011-2015
(awaiting endorsement)
Launch of BPM Manual, Alice
Springs 2009
NAPMC field trip,
Mannum SA March 2011
Athel pine Finke River NT
Identification
• 3 Tamarix species in Australia
Tamarix aphylla
Tamarix ramosissima
Tamarix parviflora
Athel pine
Tamarisk
Smallflower tamarisk
• Common names vary. Athel pine = Tamarix =
Tamarisk.
• Varying taxonomy over time (eg Tamarix pentandra =
T ramosissima)
Tools to assist
• Fact Sheet
• BPM Manual pages 10-11
1. Athel pine – Tamarix aphylla
• Tall evergreen tree (to 20m)
• Riparian - watercourses
• Weedy from Carnarvon WA to Bourke NSW; Central Australia
to Hughenden QLD; Menindee NSW to Leigh Creek SA
Athel pine planted as a
wind break – Copi Hollow,
Menindee, NSW 2009
Athel pine
Declared in all states, WoNS
Leaves aphylla = without leaves, minute
dull grey, sheath around fine branchlets.
Les Tanner
Kay Bailey
Les Tanner
Chris Brown
Bark mature trees thick, rough grey-brown
to black, new stems smooth and reddishbrown to grey-green.
Flowers pinkish-white, 5 flower petals,
flower spikes at end of previous year’s
branches.
2. Tamarisk (Tamarix ramosissima)
No legal status. Weedy in southern, inland NSW,
Murray River SA, northern VIC.
Flowers pinkish-white to purple, 5 petals,
end of current year’s branches
Sandy Leighton
Sandy Leighton
Tall deciduous to semi-deciduous shrub to 6m
Leaves small, smooth surface,
evenly thick from base to tip
T. ramosissima along the
edge of Lake Murphy, VIC
Jonah Gouldthorpe
Bark smooth, older stems
grey-brown, newer stems
reddish-brown
3. Smallflower tamarisk (T. parviflora)
No legal status. Weedy in Avon Valley & south west WA.
Toodyay River WA
Barry A Rice
Weedy throughout riparian areas of
western and south western USA
Sandy Leighton
Tom Dudley
Bark new bark is brown-deep purple
Leaves distinctly thickened
toward the base
Flower pinkish-white, 4
petals
Recorded Distribution
All Tamarix species in Australia
Impacts
Why are we focussing on athel pine and Tamarix?
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Increased surface soil salinity
- reduction in native vegetation
- expansion at expense of most
other vegetation
Reduced water quality
Reduced water quantity
– 1 athel pine or Tamarix plant can use up to 757 litres/day
– Reduced availability for stock, people, environment
Accelerated rusting of roofs, gutters, fences, buildings
Increased mustering costs
(X 6 compared to clear areas)
Reduced biodiversity of native plants &
animals
Flooding & alteration of watercourses
with accumulated sediment.
Examples of areas of major impact:
• 620 km of the Finke River system NT has been
invaded by athel pine
• USA -10 species of Tamarix.
(1920’s 4,000 ha; mid-1960s 500,000 ha;
current - 1,000,000 ha and still spreading)
• Murray River system increasing spread
and reporting of weedy Tamarix ramosissima
over the past 2-3 years.
How can we control athel pine &
Tamarix spp?
• Understand life cycle and spread
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Grows near water
Prolific seeders
Seed is viable for short period only
Need wet conditions to establish
Vegetative propagation is a significant means
of local spread
• Plan control effort by knowing
– Likely costs
– Resources required
– Location & density of the athel pine
(BPM Manual p20-22)
Extensive
recruitment of athel
pine along banks of
Gascoyne River,
Carnarvon WA
Mechanical clearing
Best for large infestations or isolated trees where machinery
available.
•Remove crown & taproot to at least 1m depth
Chris Brown
Chris Brown
•Follow up regrowth with herbicides
Jonah Gouldthorpe
Jonah Gouldthorpe
Mechanical clearing
NO
YES
Chemical - Herbicides
•Herbicide control of Tamarix spp. is fickle
•Need everything in your favour
•Comply with permits, labels and controlof-use legislation
•The BPM Manual (pages 27-29) contains
lists of permitted herbicides for each
control option & State
Foliar spray
Best for extensive seedlings & regrowth
<3m and following up regrowth after
mechanical control
•Good clean water
•Use wetter
•Good coverage
•Minimum 1 metre regrowth from roots
•Leave sprayed plants for 12 months
Basal bark
Useful for small
inaccessible infestations,
smooth-barked <10cm,
any time of year.
•Smooth-barked
individuals only
•Clear sediment and
debris from stems
Cut stump
Useful for small, inaccessible infestations & sites for
selective control
•Cut low and level
•Treat stump within 30 seconds
Other control options
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Stem injection / frilling
Hand pulling
Flooding
Biocontrol
Mount Isa QLD
– dieback
Lower Finke R, NT
Gemfields QLD
Decision support tree for Tamarix control (p32 BPM Manual)
N
Primary method
N
Basal bark or
foliar spray
Section 2.4.3
Stems >10
cm thick or
with rough
bark
Seedlings
<45 cm tall
only?
Y
More than
10 mature
plants?
N
Y
N
Cut Stump
Section 2.4.3
Hand pull
Section 2.4.4
Stems >10
cm thick or
with rough
bark
Basal bark or
foliar spray
Section 2.4.3
Remove debris from flood zone if
practicable
Section 2.4.1
Follow-up method
Clean down vehicles and machinery on site Section 2.4.1
Result
Is there good
access
for/availability
of machinery?
N
Y
Monitor and basal bark, cut stump or foliar spray regrowth at 1 m height
Monitor and basal bark, cut stump or foliar spray regrowth at 12-18 month intervals
Replace with local provenance plants as appropriate
Long term eradication
Y
Y
Cut Stump
Section 2.4.3
Mechanical
clearing
Section 2.4.2
Remove debris from flood zone if practicable
Section 2.4.1
Success factors
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Planning
Persistence
Monitoring
Adaptive, integrated approach using a number
of methods
• Duration of follow up required.
Regrowth following use of cut stump
on athel pines, Menindee School, NSW.
What you can do!
• Look out for high risk plantings (<100m from
watercourse, towns, homesteads, bores,
stockyards, etc)
• Record plants using GPS and take photos
• Record & report weedy populations
([email protected])
• Lodge specimens at the Herbarium
• Plan to remove athel pines over time.
Local and Regional Action
Your group, local government agency or regional body
could:
- Provide identification and awareness information to
members / stakeholders;
- Encourage mapping and recording of athel pine and
other Tamarix species;
- Identify those at a higher risk of spread;
- Develop an action plan to remove over time those
higher risk plants and those that have already become
weedy;
- Provide the mapping information to the National Athel
Pine Coordinator or Weed Contacts in each State.
Comments & Questions?
Prevent this scenario! Dense athel pine infestation on the lower Finke River, NT
Further contact:
08 89519213
[email protected]
www.weeds.org.au/WoNS/athelpine