Salt marshes and Mangroves

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Transcript Salt marshes and Mangroves

Salt Marshes and
Mangroves
By: Talia Broadus
Taylor Simpson
Daniel Pond
Camille Cantrell
What is a Salt Marsh?
• Salt marsh communities can be found in mud
flats of temperate and sub arctic regions.
• Cord Grass is the dominate plant.
• Many commercial shell fish live out their life
cycle in salt marshes.
Distribution of Salt Marsh
Plants
• Salt marshes are divided
into two regions: low
marsh and high marsh.
• Low marsh is covered by
tidal water most of the
day, while high marsh is
covered by salt water
every day.
• Low marsh is dominated
by the cord grass.
• Primary producers of salt
marshes: green algae and
benthic diatoms.
Salt Marsh Productivity
• Fresh nutrients are
brought upon by
changing tides. This helps
to support a high level
production.
• A typical salt marsh can
produce as much as 10
tons of vegetation per
acre.
• Bacteria and salt marshes
converts these detritus
into bacterial biomass
while the rest is
decomposed.
Salt Marsh Animals
• Complex communities of
marsh grasses are made
because they protect animals.
• Some are permanent while
some only come at high or low
tide
• Permanent residents:
Periwinkle snails that feed on
algae; the tidal marsh snail,
which is the dominate
gastropod mollusk; and the
ribbed muscle which closes its
valves at low tide to trap
moisture and prevent
desiccation.
Succession in Salt Marshes
• The roots of marsh plants
act as a sediment trap.
• The area becomes built
up with sand and silt,
which becomes rich mud
for decaying material.
• Tall cord is replaced by
short cord grass which
then, in turn, is replaced
by rushes.
What is a Mangrove?
• Mangrove forests
(mangals), replace the
salt marshes in tropical
regions.
• These forests appear
where there is little wave
action and muddy
sediments lack oxygen.
• Mangal regions can
contain as many as 40
species and may exhibit
zonation.
Red Mangrove
Ecological Values
• Holds in
sediment
• Shelter for fish
• Protects
intercostals from
weather
Distribution in Mangrove
Plants
• Red mangroves are the
pioneering species and are
closest to the waters edge. Its
produces seeds that germinate
and stay attached to the parent
plant.
• On the shore are the black
mangroves.
• Closest to the land are white
mangroves and button woods.
• Mangroves are differentiated
by their ability to tolerate
flooding and their different
tolerances to soil salinity.
Mangrove Root Systems
• Roots are adapted to anchor the trees firmly and are
adapted to buried parts of the plant.
• The roots systems are shallow and are widely spread.
• Black mangroves have erect, aerial roots called
pneumatophores.
• Prop roots form a tangle that slows water movement,
causing suspended materials to sink to the bottom.
Mangrove Productivity
• Primary producers are
mangrove plants, algae and
diatoms.
• In tropical regions, climbing
crabs feed on mangrove leaves
but, most of the leaves and
detritus are moved by tidal
currents.
• Mangles support commercial
fish and shell fish such as blue
crab, shrimp, spiny lobster,
mullet, spotted sea trout, and
red drum.
Mangroves as a Habitat
• The prop roots of
mangroves provide a
habitat for animals, these
roots become encrusted
with a purple oyster
called the coon oyster.
• Fish known as mud
skippers live burrowed in
the mud. Fish that do this
come out at low tide and
behave more like
amphibians than fish.
Activity
• Name 3 roles of the mangrove community.
• What is a salt marsh?
Activity Answers
•
Mangrove roles: Holds in sediment,
Shelter for fish, Protects intercostals
from weather
•
Salt marsh: communities can be found in
mud flats of temperate and sub arctic
regions, Cord Grass is the dominate
plant, Many commercial shell fish live
out their life cycle in salt marshes.