General Biology 1114 - Northwestern Oklahoma State University

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Transcript General Biology 1114 - Northwestern Oklahoma State University

General Biology 1114
Dr. Steven Thompson
IE 128 (west side)
327-8566
[email protected]
Finally a "remote control"
for class!
old model of remote
new model of remote
Your remotes will be used for
quizzes in both the lectures and lab.
• The quizzes allow us both to quickly
check on your progress.
• The software will display immediately
how the class responded to each question.
• Your individual answers will not be
displayed.
During a quiz, below each question you'll see a
screen similar to this. Shown above are the last 3
digits of remote ID numbers. Once you register
your remote, your 5 letter screen name will
appear when the computer receives your answer.
After everyone has answered the question, a
graph similar to this will be displayed. On this
graph the percentage of students choosing each
answer is displayed and the correct answer is
indicated by the green column.
First you need to register your
remote and identification
Go to the NWOSU or
Natural Science Departmental
webpages at:
www.nwosu.edu
or
www.nwosu.edu/science/
You must register your remote before your screen name will
be displayed and I can identify you so that you'll receive class
participation points. If you have not registered, you'll just see
5 digits of your remote ID number.
Please bring your remote with you to both lecture and lab
each time we meet. We will be using the remotes for quizzes
almost every day.
Quizzes missed because of absences or nonfunctional remotes
may not be made up.
Yes, we will use the remotes in class on Wednesday.
No, you won't need it for this week's lab, but you will need it
the following week.
Your 1st 2 initials and last name
and the last 2 digits of your
NWOSU ID number
Your NWOSU ID number
(may change to password of
your choice after 1st login)
How to pass General Biology
• Come to lecture AND lab (You must be
enrolled in a lecture section AND a lab)
• Read ahead
• Actively participate in lectures and labs - ask
about those things you don't understand
• Don't wait until the night before an exam to
study - minimum of about 4 hours per week
• Use more than one way of studying - read,
write, draw, talk, etc.
• Use notes, PowerPoint and text when studying
Chapter 1
The Study of Life
Pages 1-17
Mader, S.S. 2008. Inquiry into life, 12th ed. McGraw-Hill
Co. Inc. New York, NY, USA.
Biology
•Bios – ________
•__________ – to reason,
the study of
Why study biology?
What is life?
What is life?
• The quality that distinguishes a vital and functional
being from a dead body.
• The period of time from birth to death.
• An organismic state characterized by the
capacity for metabolism, growth, development,
reaction to stimuli, reproduction, adaptation,
etc.
• ___________ - all the chemical changes
which occur within a living organism.
- all of the processes used by an organism to
acquire, transform and use energy.
• ____________ – the capacity to do work
• Homeostasis – maintenance of the
internal conditions necessary to sustain life;
e.g. temperature, pH, O2 levels, blood
pressure, etc.
Organization in living things
• All living things are composed of one or
more _________.
Cell
• The smallest unit of life.
• The smallest entity that possesses all the
_____________ ____ ________.
___________
• A group of (usually) similar cells that
work together to perform a set of
functions.
Examples – muscle, bone, blood, etc.
__________
• Two or more tissues working together to
perform a set of functions.
Examples – heart, stomach, brain, etc.
Organ System
• Two or more ___________ working
together to perform a set of functions.
Examples – digestive, urinary,
cardiovascular, musculoskeletal,
reproductive systems, etc.
Organism
• A living thing.
• Must be composed of at least one cell.
• Its body may consist of different tissues,
organs and organ systems, or a ________
_______
Groups of organisms
• ______________ – a group of similar
individuals, capable of freely
interbreeding and producing fertile
offspring.
Any problems with this definition?
Groups of organisms
• Species – a group of similar individuals,
capable of freely interbreeding and producing
fertile offspring.
• __________________ – a group of
individuals of the same species living in a
given area
Groups of organisms
• Species – a group of similar individuals, capable of
freely interbreeding and producing fertile offspring.
• Population – a group of individuals of the same
species living in a given area.
• __________________ – two or more
populations of different species living and
interacting in a given area.
Groups of organisms
• Species
• Population
• Community – two or more populations of different
species living in a given area.
• ____________________– all the
interacting biotic and abiotic things
present in a given area; the interacting
community(s) in an area and their
surrounding environment.
______________
• The science of naming and classifying
organisms.
• Taxonomists:
name and describe the organism;
attempt to determine how organisms
are related to one another
Scientific name of a species
• A _____________ – consists of two parts:
name of the Genus
and the Specific Epithet
Example – Homo sapiens
Homo is the name of our genus
Homo sapiens our scientific or
species name
Taxonomic Groups
• Categories that organisms are placed in
when classified.
• Illustrate how organisms are related to
one another.
Taxonomic Groups
Domains
• 3 different groups of biochemically
and/or morphologically distinct
organisms
• ________ – bacteria-like, extremophiles
• Bacteria
• _________ – plants, animals, fungi and
protistans
Domain Bacteria
spherical - cocci
rod-shaped - baccilli
spiral - spirilli
Taxonomic Groups
______________
• The broadest category recognized by
some taxonomists.
• Contains many organisms which share
general characteristics in common.
• Many taxonomists recognize five
different Kingdoms (ignores Archaea).
Kingdoms
• ____________ – bacteria and bluegreen
algae; single-celled; prokaryotic; originally
contained both Bacteria and Archaea
Prokaryotic – cells do not have a true
nucleus; generally considered a primitive
characteristic
Eukaryotic – has a true nucleus
Kingdoms
• Monera – bacteria and bluegreen algae;
single-celled; prokaryotic
• ______________ – single-celled,
eukaryotic organisms
some very animal-like (e.g. Amoeba),
others more plant-like (e.g. algae)
Kingdoms
• Monera
• Protista – single-celled, eukaryotic organisms,
some very animal-like (e.g. Amoeba), others
more plant-like (e.g. algae);
• _____________ – eukaryotic; mostly
multicellular; have a cell wall; are not
capable of doing photosynthesis
e.g. mold, mushrooms, athlete’s foot
Kingdoms
• Monera
• Protista
• Fungi
• ____________ – eukaryotic;
multicellular; have a cell wall; capable of
photosynthesis
e.g. plants
Kingdoms
• Monera
• Protista
• Fungi
• Plantae – eukaryotic; multicellular; have a cell wall;
capable of photosynthesis; e.g. plants
• ____________– eukaryotic; multicellular;
no cell wall; not photosynthetic
e.g. animals
Other taxonomic groups
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Domain
Kingdom – many similar organisms
Phylum
Class
intermediate categories
Order
each more specific than
Family
the one preceding it
Genus
Species – one specific type of
organism
Example (only responsible for Kingdoms)
Human
Chimp
Bird
Plant
Kingdom
Animalia
Animalia Animalia Plantae
Phylum
Chordata
Chordata Chordata
Class
Order
Family
Mammalia Mammalia
Primates
Primates
Homonidae Pongidae
Genus
Homo
Species
H. sapiens
Aves
_____________
(vb) the process of a species
acquiring characteristics that allow it
to survive and/or reproduce in an
environment;
(n) the beneficial characteristic(s)…
_____________
– a measure of the number of different
kinds of organisms in an area and
their relative abundances.
___________
– changes
in the genetic composition of
a population over time resulting in
the accumulation of new adaptations.
How do scientists
study the world
around them?
How do scientists study the
world around them?
•Scientific Process
No one “cookbook” method for
conducting science
Scientific Method
• 1 - __________
Example • Notice that many trees
lose their leaves in the
fall at about the same
time it starts getting
colder.
Scientific Method
• 1 – Observe
• 2 - ___________
• Notice that many trees
lose their leaves in the
fall.
• Trees lose leaves
because it is colder
Hypothesis
• an educated guess;
• our best explanation for why or how
something happens;
• must be testable
Theory
• An explanation that has been
repeatedly tested and always found to
be true.
• Often a theory is an explanation that
draws on several different
hypotheses.
Law or Principle
• A fact; an absolute; an explanation
that is beyond questioning.
• Not many laws in biology.
• Is evolution a scientific theory or a
principle?
Scientific Method
• 1 - Observe
• Notice that many trees
lose their leaves in the
fall.
• 2 - Hypothesize
• Trees lose leaves because
it is colder.
• 3 - ___________
• Place identical trees
in different environments.
Collect data on results
Variables
• Factors which can change and may
affect the experiment
Examples?
Variables
• Factors which can change and may
affect the experiment
Examples?
Temperature, Water, Fertilization,
Light, etc.
____________
• Variables that are kept constant
during the course of an experiment.
• Usually only one variable at a time is
allowed to change.
Why only one?
Scientific Method
•
•
•
•
1 - Observe
2 - Hypothesize
3 - Experiment
4 - __________
__________
• Use statistics to
compare trees’
responses (analyze
data)
• Publish results
Scientific Method
•
•
•
•
1 - Observe
2 - Hypothesize
3 - Experiment
4 - Objective
Evaluation
• 5 - __________ • Try a new test of
hypothesis,
or
a
___ __________
different test of the
existing hypothesis
Study Suggestions
• Try the test questions at the end of each
chapter.
• Make certain you are familiar with the list
of terms at the end of each chapter.
• Use your notes as an indication of what
topics are most likely to be on exams.
• Study prior to each class meeting.