1.4.6 Woodland - Flora and Fauna

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Transcript 1.4.6 Woodland - Flora and Fauna

Woodland Ecology
This resource is designed to be used as a teaching aid for Leaving Certificate Ecology.
It contains a variety of species commonly found in a woodland ecosystem. We hope that
biology teachers will find aspects of this resource useful.
Produced in association with the Galway Education Centre and the Biology Support
Service.
Design Team
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Pauline Dervin Healy (Assoc. BSS)
Gerry Nihill (Holy Rosary College, Mountbellew)
Louise Crotty (Mercy Secondary School, Galway)
Veronica Mc Cauley (NUIG)
Photograph references: http://www.sciencephoto.com/
Flora & Fauna from a Woodland
Habitat
Flora
Fauna
Oak
Holly
Bramble
Ivy
Bluebell
Lords and Ladies
Primrose
*Bracket Fungus (not a plant)
Blackbird
Snail
Woodlouse
Badger
Squirrel
Aphid
Ladybird
Earthworm
Flora of the Woodland
(Sessile Oak)
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Role in energy flow: Producer
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Adaptation: Sheds its leaves in winter to conserve water which might not be readily
available. If leaves were present, water would be lost by transpiration.
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Abiotic factor: Soil pH: Grows best in Acidic soils pH 4 – pH 6.5.
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Eaten by: Aphids and caterpillars eat the leaves. Squirrels eat the acorns.
Flora of the Woodland
(Holly)
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Role in energy flow:
Producer
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Adaptation:
Able to photosynthesise in lower light
intensity as its dark green leaves have a
high level of chlorophyll to maximise
light absorption.
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Abiotic factor:
Percentage soil water:
Intolerant of wet soil.
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Eaten by:
Red berries eaten by blackbirds.
Flora of the Woodland
(Bramble)
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Role in energy flow:
Producer
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Adaptation:
Brightly coloured succulent fruits for
dispersal by woodland birds. Spines on
leaves and stems protect the plant and
act like hooks and helps the plant to
climb other shrubs.
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Abiotic factor:
Soil pH: Grow best at a pH of 6 – 6.5
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Eaten by:
Berries eaten by blackbirds and
squirrels.
Flora of the Woodland
(Ivy)
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Role in energy flow:
Producer
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Adaptation:
Adventitious roots enable it to climb up
trees in order to reach better light.
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Abiotic factor:
Light Intensity: Can grow at low light
intensity.
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Eaten by:
Berries and nectar provide winter feed
for birds. Buds are eaten by the larvae
of moths and butterflies.
Flora of the Woodland
(Bluebell)
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Role in energy flow:
Producer
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Adaptation:
Flowers early in spring and
completes its life cycle, before the
canopy of leaves emerge and
reduce the available light.
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Abiotic factor:
Light Intensity: Needs high light
intensity to flower.
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Eaten by:
Bulbs are eaten by badgers. Bees
eat the nectar from the flower.
Flora of the Woodland
(Lords and Ladies)
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Role in energy flow:
Producer
Adaptation:
It produces a pungent smell (like rotting meat) to attract flies for pollination.
Abiotic factor:
Light Intensity: Shade tolerant, will survive at low light intensities.
Eaten by: Not eaten, it is a poisonous plant.
Flora of the Woodland
Primrose
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Role in energy flow:
Producer
Adaptation:
Flowers early in spring before the
leaves appear on the trees which
block the light.
Abiotic factor:
Light Intensity: Needs high light
intensity to flower.
Eaten by:
Slugs, snails, and butterflies feed
on the nectar.
Flora of the Woodland
Bracket Fungus
(not a plant)
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Role in energy flow:
Decomposer
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Adaptation:
Can obtain its nutrients from dead
and decaying wood.
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Abiotic factor:
Humidity: It thrives in high
humidity.
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Eaten by:
Slugs
Fauna of the Woodland
(Blackbird)
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Role in energy flow:
Consumer
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Adaptation:
Pointed beak for probing the ground to
find earthworms. Low notes in its song
travel very well through the woodland.
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Abiotic factor:
Air temperature: If the temperature is
low, it can lead to high mortality in the
young due to open nests.
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Feeds on:
Ivy berries and other fruits. Also eats
insects and worms.
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Eaten by:
Fox
Fauna of the Woodland
(Snail)
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Role in energy flow:
Consumer / Herbivore
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Adaptation:
Its ability to produce a slimy mucus
prevents the snail drying out as it
travels across dry terrain.
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Abiotic factor:
Humidity: If the humidity is low it
is in danger of drying out, it thrives
in cool and moist conditions.
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Feeds on: Plant material e.g.
primrose leaves
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Eaten by: Hedgehog and Badger
Fauna of the Woodland
(Woodlice)
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Role in energy flow:
Decomposer. Feeds on wood and leaf
litter.
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Adaptation:
Grey/brown colour provides
camouflage to protect them from
predators.
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Abiotic factor:
Air temperature: In high temperature
they tend to lose water quickly.
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Feeds on: Wood and leaf litter.
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Eaten by: Shrews, badgers and birds.
Fauna of the Woodland
(Badger)
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Role in energy flow:
Consumer/ Omnivore
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Adaptation:
Sharp claws used for digging
through the stony woodland soil to
build their sets.
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Abiotic factor:
Air temperature: They become
inactive and sleep during very cold
weather.
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Feeds on:
Slugs, earthworms, beetles, roots
e.g. bluebell roots.
Fauna of the Woodland
(Red Squirrel)
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Role in energy flow:
Primary Consumer
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Adaptation:
Long bushy tail is an aid to balance
on tree tops.
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Abiotic factor:
Air temperature: They become less
active during very cold weather.
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Feeds on:
Acorns, nuts
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Eaten by: Fox
Fauna of the Woodland
(Aphid)
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Role in energy flow:
Consumer / Herbivore
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Adaptation:
Mouth parts are adapted for
sucking plant sap.
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Abiotic factor:
Temperature: As the temperature
increases the aphids reproduce
faster.
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Feeds on: Plant sap
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Eaten by: Ladybirds
Fauna of the Woodland
(Ladybird)
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Role in energy flow:
Secondary Consumer / Carnivore
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Adaptation:
Bright colour deters predators
• Abiotic factor:
Air temperature:
determines the length of the life
cycle
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Feeds on:
Aphids (Greenfly) and other small
insects.
Fauna of the Woodland
(Earthworm)
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Role in energy flow:
Decomposers
Adaptation:
Can move through the soil quickly
Abiotic factor:
soil water. During periods of dry
weather they cannot move through
the soil. They travel deep into the
soil to avoid dehydration
Feeds on:
Dead plant material.
Eaten by:
Blackbird and Fox.
Woodland Food Web
Badger
Ladybird
Fox
Blackbird
Aphid
Squirrel
Snail
Primrose
Bramble
Ivy berries
Oak Acorn
END