Why use native plants?

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Transcript Why use native plants?

Why Use Native Plants?
• They provide Florida’s wildlife with food and shelter.
• They are more likely to survive Florida’s climate
(cost effective landscaping). Many are attractive!
• They are slower growers and require less
maintenance (watering, fertilizing, pesticides
applications, pruning, etc.).
• They are appropriate choices for soil erosion &
beach stabilization.
What Are Florida Native Plants?
• Those species in Florida
prior to European contact,
according to best scientific
and historical evidence.
• Species understood as
indigenous, occurring in
natural associations in
habitats that existed prior
to significant human
impacts and alterations of
the landscape.
Zamia floridana, “Coontie”
• The first people known to
eat this plant are the
Calusa, Tacobaga and
Timucua Indians.
• “Coontie” is one of the
names the Seminoles had
for this plant and it roughly
means “flour root.”
• Around 1845, several
factories started by white
men to produce starch
from the “Coontie.” Their
name for this plant was
“Arrow Root.”
Coccoloba uvifera, “Sea Grape”
• Were once used for
everything from
medicine to furniture
to food.
• Sap or resin from
the tree (called
“kino”) has been
used in the process
of tanning & dying
and as an astringent
for wounds.
Coccoloba uvifera, “Sea Grape” (cont.)
Fruit
• A tea can be made from
the roots, leaves, and
bark to treat
hoarseness, asthma,
hemorrhaging, and
diarrhea.
• Cabinets and furniture
have been made from
the wood of the tree,
and the leaves may
have served as a
substitute for paper.
Ilex vomitoria, “Yaupon holly”
• “Yaupon holly” is one of the few
plants native to North America
that contains the ingredient
caffeine. It is concentrated in the
leaves in Spring.
• Native societies collected these
leaves and roasted them,
steeped the leaves in hot water.
This is the making of the “The
Black Drink” used as a
ceremonial drink.
• Some tribes brewed a
concentrated concoction that was
used for cleansing - caused
increased sweating and vomiting.
Bibliography
• Hudson, Charles (editor). 1979. The Black Drink: A
Native American Tea. University of Georgia Press.
Athens.
• Milanich, Jerald T., Florida Indians and the Invasion
from Europe. University Press of Florida: Gainesville.
1995.
• Small J. 1921. Seminole bread - The coonti. Journal
of The New York Botanical Garden (22).
• Ward, D. B. (editor). Rare and Endangered Biota of
Florida, Vol. 5. University Press of Florida:
Gainesville. 1997.
So Important!
Feeding Our Wildlife
With Native Plants
Our Wildlife
Is On Decline
Due To:
• Habitat Destruction
• Spread of Invasive Plants
• Chemical Pesticides
Thousands of years ago … Florida Native Plants
grew naturally …
Wildlife had plenty to eat.
• Native Plants are naturally adapted to our Florida climate
and soil. The plants stay healthy and abundant.
• Native Plants thrive on available rainfall
• They make use of nutrients found in Florida soil … Not manmade fertilizers
• Native Plants don’t need pesticides … Nature takes care of
itself. Example … Ladybugs attack aphids, scale insects,
spider mites and other pests.
Planting Native Plants
Provides Food For Pollinators
Bees
Birds
Butterflies
Plant Suggestions
Beautyberry
Callicarpa americana
Mockingbirds eat
the purple fruit
Black-eyed Susan
Rudbeckia hirta
Nectar for Insects
Tickseed
Coreopsis
Nectar for
Butterflies &
Birds eat the Seeds
Many plants provide wildlife shelter in undergrowth and leaves
Beautyberry
Callicarpa americana
In Your Own
Backyard!
Birds & Butterflies
Will Enjoy This Shrub
Mockingbird
Our State Bird
The Berries of Beautyberry
Are a Real Treat
For These Birds!
Small to Medium Evergreen
4-6 ft. high – Full Sun or Part Shade
Flowers in Spring - Autumn
Butterflies Sip the
Nectar!
Black-Eyed
Susan
Rudbeckia hirta
Native Plant
helps maintain a population of
pollinators in your yard.
•Attracts: Bees
• Birds - Seeds
• Butterflies - Nectar
Annual, Biennial
Short-Lived Perennial
1-3 ft. tall Full Sun/Part Shade
Enjoy Nature
Flowers – Spring through Autumn
In Your Own Backyard!
Tickseeds
Coreopsis leevenworthii
Our State Wildflower
Wonderful Things
Happen
When You Grow
Native Plants!
Flowers Most of Year
Full Sun/Part Shade
In Moist/Sandy Soil
Attracts:
• Birds - Seeds
• Bees - Nectar
• Butterflies - Nectar
Salt Tolerance
Medium
Once established, this plant will
return year after year from selfsown seeds!
Enjoy Nature!
Black, Red and White Mangroves
Three mangroves occur in Florida: Black (over 65 feet tall, dark
& scaly bark); Red (tallest, over 80 feet, prop & drop roots, gray
bark); and White Mangroves (up to 50 feet tall, shrub/tree).
Black Mangrove
Over 65 feet tall, dark
& scaly bark
Red Mangrove
Tallest, over 80 feet,
prop & drop roots,
gray bark
White Mangrove
Up to 50 feet tall,
shrub/tree
Historically Uses
• Firewood
• Charcoal
• Tannin (derived from the
bark and used for tanning
animal skins to make
leather).
Why Mangroves Are Important?
• They help prevent soil erosion and reduce
wind/storm surge damage to coastal
structures.
• They provide habitat and food for many
types of animals (fish, birds, etc.). (“Coon”
oysters cling to the roots, in the Ft.
Meyers, everglades areas.)
• They improve water quality.
Where Red Mangroves Grow
They survive in
brackish water along
shores, inland rivers
and creeks, where
dense growths stand
high on stilted roots
(tap roots) well out
into the water. (They
can grow in
freshwater, too.)
Facts
• The mangrove is a
protected species!
• Its’ survival was uncertain
due to advancing and
invasive development, as
well as invasive species.
Mangrove Sources
• The Biology of the Trees Native to Tropical Florida, by P. B. Thomilson,
1980. Rhizphoraceae, p. 320
• Florida Trees, by Ethel Synder, Sanibel, FL. page 84.
• Florida 4-H Forest Ecology: Red Mangrove (Rhizophora mangle) at
http://www.sfrc.ufl.edu/4h/Red_mangrove/redmangr.htm
• Center for Wetlands at the University of Florida: Common Wetland Plants of
Florida at http://www.cfw.ufl.edu/Macrophytes.htm
• Homeowner Guide for Trimming Mangroves in Pinellas County at
http://www.pinellascounty.org/environment/pagesHTML/pdfs/MangroveLay.p
df
• Newfound Harbor Marine Institute - Marine Science Educational Center based
in the Florida Keys: Mangroves at http://www.nhmi.org/mangroves/index.htm
• Florida's Mangroves - "Walking Trees:" Department of Environmental
Protection Pamphlet at
http://www.floridaplants.com/horticulture/mangrove.htm
Drought and Salt Tolerant Native Plants
Handout was adapted from:
Florida's Best Native Landscape
Plants: 200 Readily Available
Species for Homeowners and
Professionals by Gil Nelson.
(Copyright 2003 by AFNN,
Association of Florida Native
Nurseries) University Press of
Florida: Gainesville, FL. 412 pages;
$34.95.
This book is beautifully illustrated
and has many quality photographs.
Phonetic pronunciations provided.
Drought and Salt Tolerant Tree
“Sweet Acacia” (Acacia
farnesiana). Specimen tree
or barrier shrub. Up to 15’
tall or more. Thorny, multistemmed, dense zigzag
branches. Bright yellow
fragrant flowers,
November to February.
Fruit is a long woody pod, 2
to 3 inches, with brown
seeds. Lives less than 30
years. Likes alkaline soil.
Don’t over-water. Zone 9 11.
Drought and Salt Tolerant Shrub
“Coontie” (Zamia pumila).
Evergreen cycad (cone
bearer) with females and
males on different plants.
From 1 to 4 feet tall and as
wide, or wider than tall.
Flowers in Spring. Fruit
ripens in Autumn to
Winter. If they become
infected with scale, cut
back to ground for new
growth. Don't over water.
Zone 8 – 11.
Drought (Not Salt) Tolerant Palm
“Scrub Palmetto” (Sabal
etonia). Evergreen, shrublike palm with stems 3’ long,
fan-shaped fronds up to 3’
wide, and subterranean
trunk. Flowers along many
stalks Spring to Summer.
Small, shiny bluish black
berries Summer to Fall.
Lives well over 100 years!
Zone 9 - 11.
Drought and Salt Tolerant Grass
“Sea Oats” (Uniola
paniculata). Large
rhizomatous grass.
Grows 3 to 6 feet
tall. Flowers in
Spring to Autumn.
Needs to be
planted close to
the coast in deep
sand. Zone 6 – 10.
Drought and Salt Tolerant Wildflower
“Blanket Flower, Indian
Blanket, or Gaillardia”
(Gaillardia pulchella). Can
cause dermatitis in
sensitive individuals.
Taprooted annual or
perennial. Grows to 1 to 2
feet tall and 1 ½ times as
wide. Flowers in Spring to
Summer. Remove spent
seeds and older plants.
Zone 8 – 11.
Drought and Salt Tolerant Vine
“Beach Morning Glory”
(Ipomoea imperati).
Smooth, fleshy spreading
(through rhizomes) but
non-climbing vine. Grows
to about 6 inches tall.
Flowers in Spring to
Autumn. Can be use as a
groundcover or lawn
substitute (if you have
sandy areas in the lawn).
Zone 8 – 10.
Drought and Salt Tolerant Ground Cover
“Golden Creeper”
(Ernodea littoralis).
Grows to 1 to 2 feet
tall and up to 3 times
as wide. Flowers yearround. Good erosion
control. Don't over
water. Zone 9 – 11.
References
1. A Gardener's Guide to Florida Native Plants by Rufino
Osorio. (Copyright 2001 by Board of Regents of the State of
Florida). University Press of Florida: Gainesville, FL. 347
pages; $26.95.
2. Florida's Best Native Landscape Plants: 200 Readily
Available Species for Homeowners and Professionals by Gil
Nelson. (Copyright 2003 by AFNN, Association of Florida
Native Nurseries) University Press of Florida: Gainesville,
FL. 412 pages; $34.95.
3. Florida Wildflowers in Their Natural Communities by Walter
Kingsley Taylor. (Copyright 2001 by Board of Regents of the
State of Florida). University Press of Florida: Gainesville,
FL. 370 pages; $24.95.
Why Use Native Plants? Because they ...
• are naturally adapted to Florida.
• provide food and shelter for
wildlife native to Florida, as well as
migrating animals.
• require less maintenance. Spend
your time enjoying them!
• prevent soil erosion & aid in beach
stabilization.
• many are attractive!
Florida Thatch Palm
Drought & Salt Tolerant,
Zone 11