Biome Project - purdyplatypus

download report

Transcript Biome Project - purdyplatypus

Coniferous Forest, Tundra, Temperate Grassland, Temperate
Malini Gandhi, Joy Kang, Lena Gollick, Carla Forbes
Joy Kang
E block
Exists in broad bands
across northern North
America and Eurasia
to the southern border
of the Arctic Tundra
50 to 60 degrees N
Example: Beaverlodge, Alberta, Canada
Temperature range: -40 C to 20 C
Precipitation: 300 to 900 milliliters
of rain per year
 All coniferous forests are dominated by a few species of
needle-bearing trees such as pine, spruce, fur and hemlock
 There are two types of coniferous forests:
Coniferous forests that grow in the lower latitudes of
North America, Europe, and Asia along the coasts or in
the higher mountain areas are actually temperate
rainforests. These areas are warm and moist, with
precipitation reaching annual levels up to 2,000 mL in
some areas. A few of the largest tree species in the world,
such as the Giant Sequoia and Coast Redwood of
California, thrive and tower upwards in these temperate
The taiga, or the northern boreal forest, exists in
broad bands across Eurasia and North America just
below the tundra. These areas receive heavy snowfall
during cold, long, dry winters, while the short summers
are relatively warm and moist. Cone-shaped conifers
laden with snow stretch across huge expanses of land,
and snowshoe hares, wolverines, and other animals are
adapted to the snow and the cold
Redwood forest
The northern boreal forests experience long, cold, and dry winters
with heavy snowfall. This extreme abiotic factor limits and shapes
the animal and plant species there; the conifers are cone-shaped to
bear heavy snow, while animals deal with the pressing conditions by
migrating, going into hibernation, or possessing valuable features to
survive in the winter (snowshoe-like feet, white camouflage, layers of
fur, etc.)
The summers are short but relatively warm, wet, and humid.
The taiga soil is often water-logged during the brief period when the
snow finally melts, making parts of the area almost bog-like; trees
such as black spruce and larch grow well in the poorly-drained soil.
Soil tends to be poor in nutrients. The thinness of the soil is
mostly due to the cold temperatures that prevent plant growth;
additionally, the extremely acidic nature of fallen conifer needles
further leeches the soil and reduces the rate of decomposition.
Competition for nutrients is fierce, and the acidic nature of the forest
floor means that only lichens and some mosses grow on it.
 Conical shape: promotes shedding of snow, loss of branches.
 Needles: reduces surface area through which water may be lost
through transpiration. Needles also possess thick waxy coatings
that protect them from freezing temperatures and drying winds.
 Retention of foliage: allows the tree to photosynthesize as soon
as the temperature permits it during the spring so it doesn’t
waste time growing leaves.
 Dark color: absorbs the maximum amount of heat from the sun.
 Black Spruce is a tall tree – growing up
to 25 m tall – with short, blue-green
needles. It produces black cones with
purplish-brown seeds that provide food
to a variety of birds
 Well-adapted to the taiga environment:
1. Layered twigs, waxy pine needles,
and rough bark protect the tree
against severe cold
2. The tree enjoys poorly-drained soil,
which is essential for survival because
taiga soil is often wet and bog-like
during the brief summer when the
snow finally melts
 Tamarack larches are actually “coniferous-
deciduous trees” with light blue-green
needle-like leaves that turn bright yellow
before falling off in the autumn
Found in Canada and central Alaska at the
edge of the tundra
Though it is not coniferous, the tamerack
larch is well adapted to the taiga
Very cold tolerant, surviving in
temperatures as low as -65 C
Grow most commonly in swamps in wet
to moist soil, a perfect correlation with
the taiga’s bog-like soil in the summer
Can grow in the thin, nutrient-poor soil
of the taiga
 Very large rabbit that lives in northern
forest areas where the ground is
covered with undergrowth
 Feeds on grass, clover, and other
greens in the summer, and bark,
twigs, and buds in the winter
 Predators: wolf, bobcat, lynx
Well-adapted to coniferous forests with heavy snowfall
- Large rear feet and toes that can spread out act as snowshoes
- Feet also have fur on the bottom, which protects the rabbit
against the cold and provides them with traction in the snow
- The snowshoe hare is a rusty, grayish-brown color in the
summer, but in the winter it turns pure white, which helps them
merge with the snow and hide from predators
 A powerfully-built, meat-eating
animal; the largest member of the
weasel family
With its keen sense of smell, the
wolverine preys on rodents, fish,
reptiles, birds, carrion, and
sometimes berries
Well-adapted to living in the cold
and the snow:
Strong jaws can bite through
frozen meat and bone
Feet act as snowshoes to keep the
animal from sinking into deep
 The coniferous forests of Yellowstone National Park are
shaped by fire. Most tree species have adapted to burning:
- Douglas-fir has thick bark to protect it against fire
- Other species, such as lodgepole pine, have very thin bark
and instead rely on the rejuvenating influence of periodic
fires. Lodgepole cones remain closed until exposed to
intense heat; the new generation of trees benefits from the
nutrients and direct sunlight
 But in recent years, fire-suppression from humans had
prevented small lightning-induced fires that the lodgepole
pines depend on to destroy old, flammable trees. Finally, in
1988, the accumulated fuel of old trees caused a massive
fire that destroyed the old lodgepole forest.
 The first stage (50 years): Small plants and young
lodgepole pines spring up among dead trees; the
trees are widely spaced and the vegetation is low
lying and green. Flammability is low.
 The second stage (100 years): The lodgepole
pines form dense stands up to 50 feet tall, and
their shade blocks the growth of other vegetation.
Flammability is low; there is still some dead trees
on the ground, but even if they caught on fire the
treetops are too high to be affected.
 The third stage (100 years): The original pines
are thin out, ground vegetation increases, and fir
and spruce trees start to appear. Green vegetation
on the forest floor prevents large fires initially, but
later in the stage small trees provide fuel that can
spread fire into the canopy.
 The fourth stage: The original lodgepole pines
are dying, and the abundant woody fuel means the
forest is at its most flammable state; the forest is
ready for fire.
During the fire…
Growing back…
Text Citations
• “Taiga or Boreal Forest.”
NASA, Earth Observatory, “Coniferous Forests,”
• Campbell, Neil. “Biology.” Pearson Education, Inc. 2002.
• “Taiga.”
• Blue Planet Biomes. “Taiga.”
• “Larch.”
• Ruhf, Robert J. “The 1988 Forest Fires of Yellowstone National Park.”
Picture Citations
 and
Joy Kang
E block
 Temperature Range is 70 °C to 12°C
 6-10 inches of snow fall each year
 The tundra is located between latitudes
 A queer biome. It is the coldest, yet driest biome!
Even though the first thing you might picture about a
tundra is tons of snow, it actually has little
precipitation. In a way, it is a desert with permafrost in
the place of sand.
 The arctic moss is a type of plant that grows very
slowly and lives very long.
 It grows in the tundra only because the tundra has very
little nutrients, and it can store nutrients when it is not
growing to make more leaves in the spring.
 It also grows closer to the ground so that the extremely
powerful winds do not harm it.
 The arctic willow is a tree
that does not grow vertically
but spreads its branches out
over the permafrost.
 To protect itself, the arctic
willow produces pesticides
that keep bugs like the
Arctic woolly bear away.
 It also keeps warm by
growing long fuzzy hairs on
its leaves.
 The polar fox is a small white fox that lives in the
tundra as a scavenger.
 The polar fox, also known as the white fox, keeps the
environment clean by eating dead animals
 It also is the specialist predator of lemmings and voles
 The fox has a long bushy tail which it uses as
insulation by wrapping it around itself when sleeping
 Polar bears usually eat ringed
 However, they eat most living
things from plants and smaller
mammals, such as the polar
foxes, to whale carcasses.
 They are at the top of the food
chain and also the largest
terrestrial predators.
 Polar bears have thick fur and a
warming layer of fat to keep
warm. Under their fur, polar
bears have black skin to soak in
the sun’s rays.
 The Tundra is mostly covered in permafrost,
permanently frozen soil, that melts at the top during
the brief summer. The permafrost prevents any deeprooted plants, such as trees, from growing.
 The extremely low temperature prevents most varieties
of animals and plants from living in the tundra, in
addition to the permafrost.
 If there was a hypothetical disturbance on land in the
Tundra climate, there would only be “primary
succession” where moss and lichen would grow.
 Since lichen and moss are the majority of plants that
live in the Tundra, that would pretty much be the end
of the succession.
Text Citations
Picture Citations
Joy Kang
E block
 Annual precipitation: 25-75 cm
 Temperature: -40 degrees F - 70 degrees F
 Latitude: 25 degrees N and S
 Temperate Grassland is a wide open space with few tall
trees because it is very windy
 Usually dominated by few types of grass
 Soil is very rich and especially good for farming
 Found in Temperate Grassland
 Not adapted to shade or heavy traffic, so open
grassland is good
 Can withstand extreme temperatures, but does
best in low rainfall areas
 A flower that prefers fertile soil and full sun, which is
readily available in temperate grassland
 Shaggy with horns
 Graze in open grassy areas and in
large herds
 Eat grasses, grasslike plants,
berries, lichens, horsetails
 Coyotes, Eagles, Bobcats, the Gray
Wolf, Wild Turkey, Fly Catcher,
Canadian Geese, Crickets, Dung
Beetle, Bison, and Prairie Chicken
life in environment
 Most active in early morning and
 Live in underground burrows
 Burrows may be shared by snakes, burrowing owls,
and even rare black-footed ferrets which hunt prairie
 Leave burrows during daylight to eat grasses, seeds,
 Wind is an abiotic factor that characterizes Temperate
Grassland because wind prevents tall trees from
growing and keeps it as open grass
 Rainfall is another abiotic factor, decides how tall the
grass will be and separates areas of Temperate
Grassland into tall grass prairies and short grass
 If a fire occurred in Temperate Grassland, secondary
succession would occur, because the soil would be
 The soil would also be enriched by the dead vegetation
 Fire in prairies also germinates certain seeds
 Area would re-grow quickly with new grass
Joy Kang
E block
 -30 - 30 degrees Celsius
 20-60 inches of precipitation annually
 Between 40 and 50 degrees latitude ( Eastern United
The Temperate Broadleaf Biomes are
unique because of their four seasons,
and the adaptations of the trees
because of these seasons. In fall the
leaves of the trees change color and fall
of in the winter, in which the trees are
in a point of dormancy. The leaves
falling off prevent transpiration, letting
the tree retain moisture for the winter,
essentially allowing it to survive.
During spring and summer the growing
season occurs. Temperate Broadleaf
biomes have very cold winters and hot,
rainy summers.
 Oak and Maple trees live in Temperate Broadleaf
forests. Their ability to shed their leaves makes them
ideal for this environment. The leaves of these trees
provide nutrients necessary for the tree, helping them
survive in this biome.
 Two species of animals include rabbits and the eastern
grey squirrels. Rabbits inhabit burrows in the ground
and squirrels use the trees as shelter. These species live
in this biome because they have special adaptations
like hibernation in which they store fat in their bodies
for the winter for when food is scarce.
 Temperature changes along with the very distinct
seasons. This temperature fluctuation accounts for the
deciduous trees which shed their leaves, a unique
characteristic of the biome.
 The tree cover and warm, wet summers cause a
buildup of organic materials, which creates a rich,
fertile soil.
 If farming took place in this biome, and the forest was
cut down, secondary succession would take place after
a while. If the farm was abandoned the trees would
grow back to be a forest, after first being recolonized
by herbaceous plants and shrubs.
Text Citations
Picture Citations