Westerlies Trade Winds

download report

Transcript Westerlies Trade Winds

1. Hot coffee is stirred with a spoon, the spoon gets hot due to
_______________.
2. A chair is placed several feet from a fire in a fireplace. The fireplace
has a glass screen. The side of the chair facing the fireplace gets warm
because of_______________.
3. A certain type of decorative lamp contains colored liquids. These
liquids form globs that break off and rise to the top of the liquid. The
globs rise due to _______________.
4. Near the ceiling of a room the air is warmer. The warm air rises
because of _______________.
5. A college student holds the back of his hand near an iron to see if it
is hot. Heat is transferred to his hand by _______________.
6. A heater is placed under one corner of a water bed
mattress. Warm water moves throughout the mattress
because of _______________.
7. A certain type of stainless steel cookware has a layer of
copper applied to the bottom to help it heat evenly. The
copper transfers heat to the pan by _______________.
8. In a swimming pool, the water near the surface is slightly
warmer. The warm water rises because of _______________.
9. One end of a copper rod is placed in a flame of a Bunsen
burner. Small pieces of wax placed along the rod melt at
progressively larger distance from the flame. Heat is
transferred through
the rod by _______________.
10. A house burns down. On the house across the street, all
of the vinyl siding is twisted and warped by the heat. The heat
was transferred across the street by _______________.
11. Warm air over the beach rises while cooler dense air from
the ocean rushes in due to _______________.
12. The metal skewer gets so hot that you drop your
marshmallow in the campfire because of _______________.
13. A huge rock at the state park gets so hot during the day
that you can’t sit on it from
_______________.
14. You lay on that same rock at night so that you can keep
warm by _______________.
15. A fireman feels a door and it is hot from the fire on the
other side due to _______________.
16. The cause of weather systems on earth is
_______________.
17.You are in the top bunk of a bunk bed and you want to
turn the air conditioner on while your friend on the bottom
bunk is fine is caused by _______________.
The movement of air caused by differences in air pressure is called
wind.
The greater the pressure difference, the faster the wind moves.
The devastation shown was caused by winds that resulted from
extreme differences in air pressure. These trailers, located in a
parking lot in Atlanta,Georgia, were overturned and stacked by high
winds. The winds were part of a possible tornado caused by a
tropical storm.
Air Rises at the Equator and Sinks at the Poles
Differences in air pressure are generally caused by
the unequal heating of the Earth.
The equator receives more direct solar energy than
other latitudes, so air at the equator is warmer and
less dense than the surrounding air.
Warm, less dense air rises and creates an area of low
pressure.
This warm, rising air flows toward the poles.
At the poles, the air is colder and denser than the surrounding air, so it
sinks.
As the cold air sinks, it creates areas of high pressure around the poles.
This cold polar air then flows toward the equator.
Pressure Belts Are Found Every 30°
You may imagine that wind moves in one huge, circular
pattern from the poles to the equator.
In fact, air travels in many large, circular patterns called
convection cells.
Convection cells are separated by pressure belts, bands of
high pressure and low pressure found about every 30° of
latitude.
As warm air rises over the equator and moves toward the poles, the
air begins to cool.
At about 30° north and 30° south latitude, some of the cool air
begins to sink.
Cool, sinking air causes high pressure belts near 30° north and 30°
south latitude.
This cool air flows back to the equator, where it warms and rises
again.
At the poles, cold air sinks and moves toward the equator.
Air warms as it moves away from the poles. Around 60° north and
60° south latitude, the warmer air rises, which creates a low
pressure belt.
This air flows back to the poles.
Global Winds
The combination of convection cells found at
every 30o of latitude and the Coriolis effect
produces patterns of air circulation called global
winds. Figure 4 shows the major global wind
systems: polar easterlies, westerlies, and trade
winds. Winds such as easterlies and westerlies are
named for the direction from which they blow.
Polar Easterlies
The wind belts that extend from the
poles to 60° latitude in both
hemispheres are called the polar
easterlies. The polar easterlies are
formed as cold, sinking air moves from
the poles toward 60° north and 60°
south latitude. In the Northern
Hemisphere, polar easterlies can carry
cold arctic air over the United States,
producing snow and freezing weather.
Westerlies
The wind belts found between
30° and 60° latitude in both
hemispheres are called the
westerlies. The westerlies flow
toward the poles from west to
east. The westerlies can carry
moist air over the United States,
producing rain and snow.
Trade Winds
In both hemispheres, the winds that blow from
30° latitude almost to the equator are called
trade winds.
The Coriolis effect causes the trade winds to
curve to the west in the Northern Hemisphere
and to the east in the Southern Hemisphere.
Early traders used the trade winds to sail from
Europe to the Americas. As a result, the winds
became known as “trade winds.”
The Doldrums
The trade winds of the Northern and
Southern Hemispheres meet in an area
around the equator called the doldrums. In
the doldrums, there is very little wind
because the warm, rising air creates an
area of low pressure. The name doldrums
means “dull” or “sluggish.”
Label the global winds
Polar Easterlies
Westerlies Trade Winds
The Horse Latitudes
1
5
3
2
4
The Doldrums
The Horse Latitudes
At about 30° north and 30° south latitude, sinking air
creates an area of high pressure. The winds at these
locations are weak. These areas are called the horse
latitudes. According to legend, this name was given to
these areas when sailing ships carried horses from
Europe to the Americas. When the ships were stuck in
this windless area, horses were sometimes thrown
overboard to save drinking water for the sailors. Most
of the world’s deserts are located in the horse
latitudes because the sinking air is very dry.
Jet Streams: Atmospheric Conveyor Belts
The jet streams are narrow belts of high-speed
winds that blow in the upper troposphere and
lower stratosphere.
Unlike other global winds, the jet streams do
not follow regular paths around the Earth.
Knowing the path of a jet stream is important
not only to pilots but also to meteorologists.
Because jet streams affect the movement of
storms, meteorologists can track a storm if
they know the location of a jet stream.
Sea Breeze, Land Breeze,
Mountain Breeze, Valley Breeze
Mountain Breezes and Valley Breezes
Mountain and valley breezes are other examples of local winds
caused by an area’s geography.
Campers in mountainous areas may feel a warm afternoon
quickly change into a cold night soon after the sun sets.
During the day, the sun warms the air along the mountain slopes.
This warm air rises up the mountain slopes, creating a valley
breeze.
At nightfall, the air along the mountain slopes cools. This cool air
moves down the slopes into the valley, producing a mountain
breeze.
You draw it!
Mrs. Austin won the $65,000,000.00 lottery
and took off on another of her wonderful
adventures. She said so long to Kennesaw and
headed for Miami, FL where her ship was waiting.
When she arrived she found her yacht was waiting
for her.
This time she knew that she needed to
check the tide table and check her charts
for any other unknown hazards.
With her yacht full of food, beverages, and
other necessities of life, (books, paper,
computer, dog) she headed off on her
adventure of a life time.
Your job is to follow her path
(see global winds sheet) and
keep a log of her cardinal
directions, the place of portage,
global winds affecting her
sailing.
(Guess you get to go too! Have fun!)
Day 1: Miami, FL -#1 ____________4190.73miles
Day 10: #1__________ to #2 _________ 4657miles
Day 19: #2 _________ to #3 _________ 2216 miles
Day 25: #3__________ to #4 __________ 2653 miles
Day 37: #4 __________ to #5 __________ 4090 miles
heat
density
Thermosphere
Ionosphere
particles in motion
solar energy
temperature
thermosphere
density
temperature
ionosphere
heat
particles in
motion
Solar energy
Andrea likes school, but she loves the
summer even more.
Over the summer, she observed many
processes that reminded her of
energy concepts she learned about
in school.
Fill in the energy
concepts she has observed in the space
provided. Choose from
radiation, conduction,
convection, greenhouse effect,
and global warming
Doesn’t it seem like
lately every summer is
the hottest on record?
Ouch! The sand is burning
my feet! Why didn’t I bring
my Sandals?
Ugh! Roll down the
window! Next time we
should park in the
shade. I’m melting back
here.
This is my favorite part of
making soup. See how the
spices come up in the middle of
the pot then go shooting out to
the side and back down? Over
and over. That’s so cool.
I love to be outside. The
sun makes me feel warm
all over
.
Doesn’t it seem like
lately every summer is
the hottest on record?
GLOBAL WARMING
Ouch! The sand is burning
my feet! Why didn’t I bring
my Sandals?
CONDUCTION
Ugh! Roll down the
window! Next time we
should park in the
shade. I’m melting back
here.
GREENHOUSE EFFECT
This is my favorite part of making
soup. See how the spices come up
in the middle of the pot then go
shooting out to the side and back
down? Over and over. That’s so
cool.
CONVECTION
I love to be outside. The
sun makes me feel warm
all over
.
RADIATION
Identify the different
types of winds from the
clues given.
When these winds failed,
early traders would give
just about anything to get
them back.
They will take you
back home if you’re
European.
They ruffle the
penguin’s feathers
and the polar bear’s
fur.
Airline pilots use these
high winds to go with the
flow whenever
they can.
When these winds failed,
early traders would give
just about anything to get
them back.
trade winds
They will take you
back home if you’re
European.
westerlies
They ruffle the
penguin’s feathers
and the polar bear’s
fur.
polar easterlies
Airline pilots use these
high winds to go with the
flow whenever
they can.
jet streams
1. What causes wind?
a. differences in air pressure
b. differences in gravity
c. differences in oxygen
d. differences in the thermosphere
2. What causes differences in air pressure around the Earth?
a. Warm air rises at the equator, and cold air sinks at the poles.
b. Warm air sinks at the equator, and cold air rises at the poles.
c. Warm air rises at the equator, and cold air rises at the poles.
d. Cold air rises at the equator, and warm air sinks at the poles
3. Air moves in large, circular patterns called
a. pressure belts. c. convection cells.
b. convection currents. d. trade winds.
In the Northern Hemisphere, winds traveling
north appear to curve to
the east because of the
a. trade winds. c. Coriolis effect.
b. convection currents. d. polar easterlies.
Global winds that blow from west to east are
called
a. polar easterlies. c. mountain breezes.
b. westerlies. d. trade winds.
Global winds that blow northeast from 30°
north latitude and southeast
from 30° south latitude are called
a. northerlies. c. polar easterlies.
b. trade winds. d. global easterlies.
Narrow belts of winds that can reach 400 km/h
are called
a. jet currents. c. convection currents.
b. jet streams. d. convection streams
Local winds are produced by
a. global winds. c. local farms and ranches.
b. global geographic features. d. local
geographic features.
Mountain and valley breezes are caused by
a. differences in temperature and elevation.
b. similarities in temperature and elevation.
c. the same temperature at all elevations.
d. high temperatures at all elevations
The map shows the locations of low–pressure and
high–pressure belts across North and South
America. Why is pressure low at the equator
relative to pressure at 30°N or 30°S latitude?
http://player.discoveryeducation.com/index.cf
m?guidAssetId=0887ead8-4680-4743-9ae551c97298ac97
http://player.discoveryeducation.com/index.cf
m?guidAssetId=acd5010d-0dad-436b-86738ea7a14f53c0
http://player.discoveryeducation.com/index.cf
m?guidAssetId=acd5010d-0dad-436b-86738ea7a14f53c0
AIR
POLUTION
http://player.discoveryeducation.com/index.cf
m?guidAssetId=E0B2ECD3-2634-42F5-84145B487D7DE5AD&blnFromSearch=1&productco
de=US
What is Air Pollution?
Definition – It is a chemical, physical
or biological agent that changes
the natural characteristics of the
atmosphere
What are other causes?
-motor vehicle exhaust
-heat and power generation facilities
-industrial processes
-auto manufacturing
-fertilizers plants
-building demolition
-solid waste disposal
-solvent evaporation
-volcanic eruption (Watch This!)
-fuel production
-roadway construction
-electrical components manufacturing
-extraction of metals
-forest fires
-agriculture
What are some major air pollutants?
-Carbon Monoxide
-Carbon Dioxide
-Chlorofluorocarbons
-Hazardous Air Pollutants
-Lead
-Ozone
-Nitrogen Oxide
-Particulate Matter
-Sulfur Dioxide
-Volatile Organic Compounds
What can it do to our health?
-Can cause health problems including
burning eyes and nose, itchy irritated
throat, and breathing problems.
-Can cause cancer, birth defects, brain and
nerve damage, and long-term injury to the
lungs and breathing passages in certain
circumstances.
What can it do to our environment?
-Global warming, acid rain, smog, ozone depletion
-Trees, lakes, and animals have been harmed by air
pollution
-Thinned the protective ozone layer above the Earth
-Damage buildings, monuments, statues, and other
structures.