Unit 8 Climatic Interactions

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Transcript Unit 8 Climatic Interactions

TEK 8.10
Earth and Space
The student knows that climatic
interactions exist among Earth,
ocean, and weather systems.
Vocabulary
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Gulf Stream
Front
Convection current
Weather
Climate
Land breeze
7. Sea breeze
8. El Nino
9. High pressure system
10. Low pressure system
11. Air mass
12. Density
8.10 Student Expectations
A) Recognize that the Sun provides the energy that
drives convection within the atmosphere and
oceans, producing winds and ocean currents.
B) Identify how global patterns of atmospheric
movement influence local weather using weather
maps that show high and low pressures and
fronts.
C) Identify the role of the oceans in the formation
of weather systems such as hurricanes.
Air Masses
Weather
It describes the condition of the air at
a particular time and place. Weather
also tells how the air moves (wind)
and describes anything it might be
carrying such as rain, snow or clouds.
Thunder, lightning, rainbows, haze
and other special events are all part
of weather.
Climate
It describes the average weather
conditions in a certain place or during
a certain season. Weather may change
from day to day, but climate changes
only over hundreds or thousands of
years.
Air Masses
-a large body of air that has a certain temperature
and amount of moisture.
-2 main types of air masses
1. Maritime
2. Continental
Maritime Air Mass
-air mass formed over an ocean
Maritime Tropical
Maritime Polar
 Forms over the ocean
near the equator
 Made of warm, moist
air.
 Forms over the ocean
north of the U.S.
 Made of cool, moist air
Continental Air Mass
-air masses formed over land
Continental Tropical
 made of hot dry air
 forms over Mexico
 moves north in the
summer
Continental Polar aka
Continetal Artic
 made of cold, dry air
 Forms in Canada
 Moves south into the
United States in the
winter
Maritime
Polar Air Mass
Continental
Polar Air Mass
description
description
Maritime
Tropical Air
Mass
Continental
Tropical Air
Mass
Air Masses
-20 for
no color
description
description
12-100
11-92
10-83
9-75
8-67
7-58
6-50
5-42
4-33
3-25
2-17
1-8
Weather Fronts
-an area where two masses with different
temperatures and different densities collide, but
do not mix.
types of fronts
1. Cold Front
2. Warm Front
3.Stationary Front
Cold Front
-the leading edge of a cooler mass of air, replacing
(at ground level) a warmer mass of air.
-Cool air mass is more dense (more mass in given
space)
-moves under warm, less dense, air (less dense) as
it rises and creates heavy clouds
-bring violent storms that last a short period of
time.
Cold Front
Warm Front
-leading edge of a warm air mass moving in to
replace a cold air mass.
-Warm air pushes cold air and gradually rises
over cold air mass creating small clouds.
-bring light/mellow rain and showers that can last
for several days.
Warm Front
Stationary Front
-A stationary front forms when a cold front or
warm front stops moving.
-This happens when two masses of air are
pushing against each other but neither is
powerful enough to move the other.
--brings many days of continuous precipitation
Stationary Front
Watch This!!
Weather Fronts and Air Masses Study Jamz
Fronts Foldable
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•
•
•
•
Fold paper in half
2 Drawings (1 pt. each)
2 labels of Fronts (1 pt. each)
2 definitions (1 pt. each)
2 explanations of the weather that results from each
front
• 2 explanations about why cold air replaces and lifts
warm air, and why warm air pushes and covers cold air
but does not lift cold air(1 pt. each)
• 2 symbols (1 pt. each)
• -20 for no color
Cold Front (1pt)
-the leading edge of a cooler mass of air,
replacing (at ground level) a warmer mass
of air. (1 pt)
Weather-bring violent storms that are
followed by fair, cooler weather (1pt)
(1pt)
(1pt)
Warm Front
-leading edge of a warm air mass moving in
to replace a cold air mass.
-bring rain and showers followed by
warmer, more humid weather.
Cold Front
-the leading edge of a cooler mass of air,
replacing (at ground level) a warmer mass
of air.
Weather-bring violent storms that are
followed by fair, cooler weather
Warm Front
-leading edge of a warm air mass moving
in to replace a cold air mass.
-bring rain and showers followed by
warmer, more humid weather.
Pressure Systems
Air Pressure
-the weight of the air pressing down on the
Earth, the ocean and on the air below
High Pressure Weather System
-A high pressure system is a whirling mass of cool,
dry air that generally brings fair weather and
light winds.
-winds spiral out of a high-pressure center in a
clockwise rotation in the Northern Hemisphere.
These bring sunny skies. A high pressure system is
represented as a big, blue H.
- > High H for Happy
-winds move clockwise
High Pressure Weather System
Low Pressure System
A low pressure system is a whirling mass of
warm, moist air that generally brings stormy
weather with strong winds.
-winds spiral into a low-pressure center in a
counterclockwise rotation in the Northern
Hemisphere.
A low pressure system is represented as a big,
red L.
- Low -Lousy Weather
-Counter clock is bad
Low Pressure Weather System
Weather Map Symbols
-symbols used to represent air pressure
Watch This
• Air Pressure Systems
Watch this
Pressure Systems
Lets put it all together
Pre-AP Weather Report Project
You will research the different weather symbols found on a weather map and
create a script identifying all weather symbols, location, and the type of
weather that should be expected. This should be written in a scripted format
as if you were the weather reporter on live tv.
You will turn in 2 papers
-Organized Research of weather symbols
Must include following:
-Describe/Explain following symbols: Cold Fronts, Warm
Fronts, Stationary Fronts, High Pressure Systems, Low
Pressure Systems -25 points
-Draw the Symbol and a diagram for each showing the
movement of the air masses at the specific fronts and the
movement of air at each pressure system (color coding in
red and blue are very important here)- 25 points
-Explain the type of weather associated with each one of
the weather symbols being researched. (sunny,
thunderstorms, rainy/light showers, etc.) -25 points
-Weather Report Script- identify all weather symbols, locations, and the type
of weather that should be expected. -25 points
Convection Current
-the transfer of heat in a gas or fluid through
currents
-created by warm less dense water/air rising and
cold more dense water/air dropping.
The Sun drives all weather activity
and currents because of its uneven
heating of the Earth!!!
Ocean Currents
• Warm water near equator rises towards the
poles, and water near poles travels towards
equator.
Ocean Currents
Watch this
• Ocean Currents and Convections Current
Winds and the Coriolis Effect
A natural Phenomena that appears to deflect
items, such as wind, moving on or above the
earth's surface based on the rotation of the
earth.
Trade Winds
encounters the coriolis
effect caused by the
rotation of the Earth. This
force causes the winds in
the Northern Hemisphere
to move from the east
towards the west below
the subtropical high, and
from the west towards
the east above the
subtropical high.
Westerlies
• Above the subtropical
highs in the Northern
Hemisphere, and below
the subtropical highs in
the Southern
Hemisphere, winds blow
from the west towards
the east. These winds
are thus called westerly
winds, after the
direction from where
the winds come.
Polar Easterlies
• The subpolar lows
generally cause the
winds above 60 °
latitude to move
from the east
towards the west.
We call these winds
the polar easterlies.
Factors Affecting Climate
Latitude – is the distance of a place north or south
of the equator.
– Temperature and amount of precipitation affected by
latitude.
– Latitude increase is equal to temperature decrease.
– As latitude increases, the intensity of solar energy
decreases
Factors Affecting Climate
Elevation - the distance a place is above sea
level.
– The higher the elevation is , the colder the
climate.
Factors Affecting Climate
Topography -the shape of the land which can
affect how much precipitation falls.
– Topographic features such as mountains play an
important role in the amount of precipitation that
falls over an area
Factors Affecting Climate
Distance from water- involves water ways with
different temperatures that help maintain land
temperatures around them.
– Large bodies of water such as lakes and oceans have
an important effect on the temperature of an area
because the temperature of the water body
influences the temperature of the air above it
Factors Affecting Climate
Global Winds: involves the winds and the
direction they blow.
– influences climate because they distribute heat
and moisture around Earth
5 Steps to Make a Hurricane
El Nino
El Nino
El Nino: water in the Pacific Ocean near the
equator gets hotter than usual and affects the
atmosphere and weather around the world.
Occurs every 3-8 years
Cause of El Nino is unknown
Effects of El Nino
El Nino can cause catastrophic events in places not common to
experience them.
Ex: Where one place has excessive rain, hurricanes, somewhere on
opposite side of globe is experiencing a drought/dry weather.
Usually, El Niño brings more rain and higher temperatures in U.S.
El Niño may also bring warmer than normal winter temperatures to
the eastern part of the United States.
Drought in Indonesia and Australia.
El Nino causes nutrient rich cold water to stay further below
surface causing fish to travel further, causing a shortage of fishing.
La Nina
La Nina: water in the Pacific Ocean near the
equator gets colder than usual and affects the
atmosphere and weather around the world.
• Sometimes follows El Nino
El Nino and La Nina
NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC EL NINO
Western Europe
Gulf Stream Western Europe
Gulf Stream