Earth-Sun Relationships

download report

Transcript Earth-Sun Relationships

Earth-Sun
Relationships
Climate vs. Weather
• Weather: condition of
atmosphere in 1 place during a
limited time
Climate vs. weather
• Climate: weather patterns of an
area over a long period of time
The most important factor of
climate is Earth’s position in
relation to the sun
Earth’s Tilt
• Axis: imaginary line runs
from pole to pole, through
center
–Tilted at 23 ½ º angle
–Places receive diff. amounts
of light at diff. times
Earth’s Tilt
• Areas with direct sunlight
warmer temps.
• Areas with indirect
sunlight cooler temps.
Earth’s Rotation
• Earth rotates on
its axis
–One complete
rotation = 24 hours
–From west to east,
one hemisphere at
a time
Earth’s Revolution
• As it rotates, Earth revolves
around the sun (365 days)
• Tilt + revolution = seasons
–Δs in length of days and
temp.
–Reversed for N & S
hemispheres
Equinoxes & Solstices
• Equinox: Spring and Fall
–Equal days and nights
• Solstice: Summer and
Winter
–Longer day or shorter day
Equinoxes & Solstices
• Spring equinox March 21rays hit Equator
directly…equal day/night
• Summer solstice June 22rays hit Tropic of Cancer
(23 ½ ºN)…longest day
Equinoxes & Solstices
• Fall equinox Sept. 23- rays
hit Equator directly…equal
day/night
• Winter solstice December
22- rays hit Tropic of
Capricorn
(23 ½ ºS)…shortest day
Equinoxes & Solstices
• So if it is summer in
Houston, what season is it
in South Africa?
• If we are wearing long
sleeves and jackets, what
are they wearing in China?
The Poles
• For 6 months one pole is
pointed toward sun 
constant sunlight
• Other is pointed away little
to no sunlight
“lands of the midnight sun”
The Greenhouse Effect
• The perfect balance must
be kept:
–Too much heat escapes
freeze
–Too much heat is trapped
dry out
Greenhouse effect
Global warming
• More fossil fuels (coal, oil,
natural gas) are burned 
• Greenhouse gases (CO2,
O3, water vapor) trap more
heat
Global warming
• Water evaporation , get more
rainfall
• Land dries out more quickly
Factors Affecting Climate
•
•
Divide your paper into 8 squares
Label them the following:
1.
2.
3.
4.
•
•
•
Low Latitudes
High Latitudes
Mid-Latitudes
Elevation
5. Wind Patterns
6. Ocean Currents
7. El Niño
8. Landforms
Use Ch. 3 Sec. 2
You will write at least 3 main points for each
IN YOUR OWN WORDS!
You will draw an illustration to visually
explain the factor (Must be colored)
Low Latitudes
High Latitudes
Mid-Latitudes
Elevation
Wind Patterns
Ocean Currents
El Nino
Landforms
Between the Tropic of
Cancer and Tropic of
Capricorn (includes
Equator); the “Tropics”
Receive direct rays from
Sun
Warm to hot climates year
round
Move clockwise in N.
Hem. and counterclockwise
in S. Hem.
Cool air flows in to
replaces rising warm air
(Polar front), distributing
Sun’s heat
Low latitudes have trade
winds; mid-latitudes have
westerlies; high latitudes
have polar easterlies
(named for direction they
come from)
Doldrums are a windless
band at the Equator and
Tropic lines
Polar areas= North of Arctic
Circle and south of Antarctic
Circle
Receives constant indirect
sunlight for 6 months when
pole faces Sun
March-Sept: North has
constant daylight, South is in
dark (switches for next 6
mos.)
Move clockwise in N. Hem.
and counterclockwise in S.
Hem.
Cold water moves from
poles to Equator and warms
up (warm currents), or warm
water moves from Equator to
poles and cools (cold
currents)
Currents affect the climate
on land: either cooling or
warming (ex: North Atlantic
Drift & W. Europe)
Most variable weather on
Earth
Between Tropic of Cancer
& Arctic Circle; between
Tropic of Capricorn &
Antarctic Circle
Ranges from fairly hot to
fairly cold (temperate),
dramatic changes
Summer gets warm air from
tropics, winter gets cold air
from high-latitudes
Periodic change in currents
& water temps. in midPacific region, no known
cause
Reversal of atmospheric
pressures  reduce or
reverse wind patterns
brings warm water from Asia
to South America
Domino effect: precipitation
increases, flooding in S.
America; also droughts and
fires in SE Asia/Australia
At any latitude, anywhere
on Earth, elevation
influences climate
As altitude increases, the air
thins which absorbs less heat
As elevation increases,
temperature decreases
Landforms affect climates
of places at the same latitude
Bodies of water moderate
temps. b/c they take long to
change temp.
Cool air releases moisture
on windward side of
mountain; then hot, dry air
moves to leeward side
creating deserts (rain shadow
effect)
Low Latitudes
 Between the the “Tropics”
 Low numbers in latitude value
 Receive direct rays from Sun
 Equator: 6 mos. a yr.
 Each Tropic: 3 mos. a yr.
 Receive indirect rays from Sun
 Equator: 6 mos. a yr.
 Each Tropic: 6 mos. a yr.
 Warm to hot climates year round
High Latitudes
 Polar areas= N of Arctic Circle and S of
Antarctic Circle (high numbers in latitude
value)
 Receives constant sunlight for 6 months
when pole faces Sun
 March-Sept: North has constant daylight, South
is in dark (switches for next 6 mos.)
 Arctic & Antarctic Circles are last point to
receive indirect rays (during summer or
winter)
Mid Latitudes
 Most variable weather on Earth
 Between Trop. of Cancer & Arctic Circle;
between Trop. of Capricorn & Antarctic
Circle (~30°- 60°)
 Ranges from fairly hot to fairly cold
(temperate), dramatic changes, but no
extremes
 Summer gets warm air from low-lats, winter
gets cold air from high-lats
Elevation
 At any latitude, anywhere on Earth,
elevation influences climate
 If high enough in elevation, can have snow on the
Equator!
 As altitude increases, the air thins which
absorbs less heat
 As elevation increases, temperature
decreases (3.5° per 1,000 ft)
Wind Patterns
 Move clockwise in N. Hem. and counterclockwise
in S. Hem. (Coriolis Effect)
 Cool air flows in to replace rising warm air (Polar
front), distributing Sun’s heat
 Switches direction in each latitude zone
 Low latitudes have trade winds (northeasterly/southeasterly)
 Mid-latitudes have westerlies
 High latitudes have polar easterlies
*(named for direction they come FROM)
 Windless bands
 Doldrums @ Equator
 Horse Latitudes @ Tropics
Coriolis Effect
Doldrums: windless
area near the equator
Horse Latitudes: Historically, ships would lighten
their loads in order to take advantage of the
slightest wind such as cargo, excess supplies and
livestock…this also included horses.
Ocean Currents
 Flow same directions as wind…which is??
 Cold water moves from poles to Equator and
warms up (cold currents), or warm water
moves from Equator to poles and cools
(warm currents)
 Currents affect the climate on land: either
cooling or warming (ex: North Atlantic Drift
& W. Europe)
El Niño
 Periodic change in currents & water temps.
in mid-Pacific region
 No known cause
 Reversal of atmospheric pressures  reduce
or reverse wind patterns brings warm
water from Asia to South America
 Domino effect:
 Precipitation increases, flooding in S. America
 Or droughts and fires in SE Asia/Australia
El Nino
• http://www.teachersdo
main.org/resource/es
s05.sci.ess.watcyc.es
elnino/
Landforms
 Landforms affect climates of places @ the same
latitude
 Bodies of water moderate temps. b/c they take a
long time to change temp.
 Gulf of MX is warm water keeps Houston warmer
 Continentality– absence of lg. body of water means
more drastic weather changes
 Nebraska can have hot summers and receive snow in the
winters (4 seasons instead of 2  )
 Rainshadow effect
 Cool air releases moisture on windward side of
mountain; then hot, dry air moves to leeward side
creating deserts
Ganges Plain in India
Himalaya
Arid Tibetan
Plateau
Climographs
Climographs
World Climographs webpage