Hurricanes - TeacherWeb

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Transcript Hurricanes - TeacherWeb

Atlantic Ocean
Indian Ocean
China Sea
Parts of a Hurricane
• Eye – in the center, very calm winds, very low air
• Eye wall – surrounds the eye, highest wind
speeds occur here; winds lift air at over 1 million
tons per second
• Spiral bands - Bands of rain clouds that spiral
counter-clockwise (typical hurricane 6 – 12 in. of
• Storm Surge – hurricane winds push ocean
water toward shore causing ocean level to rise
higher than the average tide; responsible for 9 of
every 10 deaths in a hurricane
The Life of a Hurricane
• Step 1 – The sun heats the ocean to 80 ◦ F
or more.
• Step 2 – A lot of water evaporates, filling
the air up to 3 miles from the surface with
water vapor.
• Step 3 – Warm, moist air rises and cool air
rushes in to create high winds. Clouds can
reach 50,000 ft.
• Step 4 – Winds spiral toward the storm
Life of a Hurricane
• Step 5 – Steady upper level winds blowing in the
same direction move the storm. As long as warm
water and winds continue to feed it, the storm
keeps growing.
– Tropical Depression if wind speeds are less
than 39 mph
– Tropical Storm is given a name when the wind
speed reaches 39 – 73 mph
– Hurricane when winds reach 74 mph
• Step 6 – Once a hurricane reaches cooler water
or land, it weakens and dies. (The longest lived
hurricane lasted 29 days.)
Beaufort Wind Scale
• The Beaufort Wind Scale is a system used to
estimate and report wind speeds when no
measuring apparatus is available.
• It was invented in the early 19th Century by
Admiral Sir Francis Beaufort of the British Navy
as a way to interpret winds from conditions at
• Since that time, the scale has been modernized
for effects on land.
• How fast must the wind speeds be in order
to classify a storm as a hurricane?
• A. 36mph
• B. 72mph
• C. 74mph
• D. 76mph
• How fast must the wind speeds be in order
to classify a storm as a hurricane?
• A. 36mph
• B. 72mph
• C. 74mph
• D. 76mph
Energy in a Hurricane
• Every gram of water (1 ml) releases 540 calories
of heat as it condenses.
• As warm, tropical air rises and condenses, huge
amounts of energy flow into the hurricane.
• A typical hurricane releases more energy in one
hour than an atomic bomb.
• The combined nuclear arsenals of the US and
Russia do not have enough power to match one
day during a hurricane.
Hurricane Names for 2014
• Arthur
Number of Tropical Cyclones per 100 Years
• What is the most popular month for
Hurricanes to occur? Why?
Hurricanes that impact us form off
of the western coast of Africa.
How many hit NJ?
What are the chances of being hit again?
• Why don’t we experience more powerful
hurricanes in New Jersey?
Saffir Simpson Hurricane Scale
• The Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale ranks
hurricanes from 1-5 based on intensity to give
an estimate of the potential property damage
and flooding expected from landfall.
• Wind speed is the determining factor in the
• Storm surge values are highly dependent on the
slope of the continental shelf and the shape of
the coastline in the landfall region.
Only 3 Category Five Hurricanes have made
landfall in the United States since records began:
– The Labor Day Hurricane - 1935 struck the Florida
Keys with a minimum pressure of 892 mb, the lowest
pressure ever observed in the United States.
– Hurricane Camille in 1969 struck the Mississippi Gulf
Coast causing a 25-foot storm surge
– Hurricane Andrew in August, 1992 crossed Florida
into the Gulf of Mexico and turned north to hit
Louisiana. It had the 3rd lowest pressures ever seen.
– By comparison, hurricane Katrina was a category 3
when it struck the US Gulf Coast.
Top 5 Deadliest Hurricanes
1900, category 4, TX
1928, category 4, FL
1919, category 4, FL and TX
1938, category 3, New England
1935, category 5, FL
• What do you notice about all of these
dates? Why is that significant?
Top 5 Costliest Hurricanes
2005 Katrina, category 3, $81 billion, LA
2012 Sandy, Extra Tropical, $53 billion, NY, NJ
1992 Andrew, category 4, $30.5 billion, FL, LA
1989 Hugo, category 4, $8.5 billion, SC
1972 Agnes, category 1, $7.5 billion, FL,
northeastern US
• 1965 Betsy, category 3, $7.4 billion, FL
– Famous hurricane names are “retired.”
Hurricane Safety
• Hurricane Watch – a hurricane is possible
within 36 hours
– Prepare flashlights, radio, extra batteries, first
aid kit, and fill gas tank of the car. Stock up on
canned goods, store extra water and
medicines. Tie down or bring in any loose
items. Bring in pets.
Hurricane Safety
• Hurricane Warning – a hurricane is likely to hit
within 24 hours
– Tape Xs across small windows to prevent flying glass.
Board up large windows. Fill the bath tub with water.
Turn fridge to the coldest setting. Evacuate mobile
homes. Go to a shelter if told to. Head for higher
ground. Flooding occurs before the hurricane arrives!
Stay away from windows. Do not go outside in the
eye of the storm. Don’t touch downed power lines. Be
on the lookout for poisonous snakes that have been
driven from their homes by the flood.
Dr. Nail vs. the Monster
• Ed Sutt: “In house after
house, I noticed that it
wasn’t the wood that had
failed—it was the nails that
held the wood together.”
• “Homeowners and
insurance companies are
going to love these nails
but contractors are going to
hate them, because when
they make mistakes, it’s not
a trivial thing to remove
them. Once you nail
something together, it’s
going to stay together.”
Benefits of Hurricanes
• Japan gets ¼ of its rain from typhoons.
• Strong winds, heavy rains and large waves create ideal
conditions for some marine animals by exposing food
along the shoreline.
• Churning waters dredge up nutrients and algae from
sediment at the bottom that then gather at the surface,
presenting a feast.
• Shrimp produce more offspring when the salinity of the
water is low, as it is after a hurricane. (oohh la la)
• Hurricanes create more breeding grounds for the
endangered birds, such as the piping plover.
Hurricane Tidbits
• The hurricane of 1938 toppled 275 million trees, enough timber to
build 200,000 five room houses. Its waves shook the earth so hard
that they were registered by a seismograph 5000 miles away in
• Hurricane Beulah in 1967 spawned 141 tornadoes in TX.
• Each cubic yard of water weighs 1700 pounds and hits with the
force of a solid object, making the storm surge the deadliest part of a
hurricane. A wave 50 feet long and 10 feet high has a weight of
80,000 pounds. Moving at 30 mph, it generates forward momentum
of over 2 million pounds.
• A hurricane eye can be 50 miles across. A hurricane can be 600
miles across; the average is 300 miles. It would take 6 hours to drive
across the width of a hurricane.
• Winds of 200 mph generate pressures of 152 pounds per square
foot, or thirty tons of weight against the wall of a house.
More Hurricane Tidbits
• In the Galveston storm, a 4 foot by 6 inch wooden board pierced the
hull of a ship. The hull was made of iron plates 1 inch thick.
• Sailors caught in the hurricane of 1837 had all of their nails turn
black. Doctors believe that the sudden drop of air pressure may
have caused their capillaries to rupture as they gripped the ship.
• Some scientists believe that low air pressure allow faults to slip and
create earthquakes during hurricanes. For example, a drop in air
pressure would lessen the load on a square mile of land by 2 million
tons. Followed by a increase in water depth from the storm surge
that would increase the load by 9 million tons. The difference would
be enough to fracture a fault line. This is the explanation given for
the events in Japan in 1923.
Hurricane Irene
August 20, 2011–August 28, 2011
Total fatalities: 56 ( In the US, 6 deaths due to
storm surge/waves, or rip currents, 15 to wind,
including falling trees, and 21 to floods .)
Highest winds: 121 mph (195 km/h)
Lowest pressure: 942 mb
Category 3
Landfall: North Carolina, New Jersey, and
New York
The storm data is from NOAA's GOES-13 satellite.
NASA - Hurricane Season 2011:
Hurricane Irene (Atlantic Ocean)
Irene caused
flooding from the
Carolinas to the
northeastern states.
The heaviest
rainfall totals of
over 225 mm (~8.9
inches) were
located in North
Carolina where
Irene first made
landfall. Very heavy
rainfall resulting in
flooding was also
evident in the
TRMM rainfall map
in northeastern
states along the
hurricane's track.
100 mm = 4 inches
The most severe impact of Irene in the
northeastern United States was
catastrophic inland flooding from heavy
rainfall in New Jersey, Massachusetts, and
Vermont. Several record breaking crests
on rivers were recorded.
A Nags Head, North Carolina, cottage built
in 1903 was listed on the National Register
of Historic Places. These are its owners.
Staten Island, NY
Lincoln Park, NJ
Paterson, NJ
Hightstown, NJ
Manville, NJ
• A storm surge of 3-5 ft along the New
Jersey shores caused moderate to severe
tidal flooding with extensive beach
• A storm surge of 3-6 ft caused hundreds of
millions of dollars in property damage in
New York City and Long Island.
• Power outages for up to 3 million residents
lasted about 1 week, mainly across
Connecticut and Long Island.
Cost of Irene
The Insurances Services Office reported that the
hurricane caused an estimated $4.3 billion in
losses. Doubling this figure in an attempt to
account for uninsured losses results in an
estimated total of $ 8.6 billion. Based on
National Flood Insurance Program data, it is
estimated that Irene caused $7.2 billion in losses
from inland flooding and storm surge.
Using these figures, the total damage estimate is
$15.8 billion.
Hurricane Sandy
Hurricane Sandy
650,000 homes damaged or destroyed
8.5 million people without power
$50 billion in damages (2nd only to Katrina)
F-0 tornado in Bermuda
28 inches of rain in Jamaica and 13 inches in
• 36 inches of snow in North Carolina and West
• 147 people dead (72 in USA, of which 41 died
due to the storm surge)
In New Jersey
• tide 8.57 feet above normal in Sandy Hook may
have been higher but station failed
• deepest water 8.9 feet in Sandy Hook
• Monmouth and Middlesex counties inundated
with 4 – 9 feet of water
• 5 million people without power
• 346,000 housing units lost
• 19,000 businesses lost
• 48,000 trees lost
• $4 billion to repair power, gas, sewer, waste, and
water services
In New Jersey
• Wildwood Crest 11.9 inches of rain
• 65,000 boats lost
• fishing industry devastated by loss of
boats, docks, marinas, restaurants, and
fish processing plants
• $2.9 billion damage to roads, bridges, and
transit systems
• Salem Nuclear Power Plant shut down
automatically when 4 of its 6 pumps failed
Before and after
images of a
portion of the
coast in
Mantoloking, NJ,
showing the
effect of storm
surge flooding.
Before and after
image of a portion
of the coast near
Rockaway, New
York, in Queens
showing the inland
extent of storm
surge flooding.
Image of a rollercoaster sitting in the Atlantic Ocean
in NJ after the Fun Town pier it sat on was
destroyed by Sandy’s storm surge.
Storm surge penetrating the lower East Side in
Manhattan, New York City, on 29 October 2012
Lexington Avenue subway station
flooded during Sandy
surveillance camera photo shows a PATH station in
Hoboken, New Jersey as it is flooded around 9:30 p.m.