Thunderstorms

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Transcript Thunderstorms

Thunderstorms
Chap. 13
Thunderstorms
Severe Weather
Tropical Storms
Recurring Weather
Thunderstorms
The End
Severe Weather
The End
Tropical Storms
This image shows damage done by
hurricane Lili in 2002
I. Tropical Cyclones
I. Tropical Cyclones
A. Energy comes from warm ocean
waters
I. Tropical Cyclones
A. Energy comes from warm ocean
waters
B. Area of low pressure forms as a
result of instability
I. Tropical Cyclones
C. Coriolis effect moves air
counterclockwise (in N. hemisphere)
I. Tropical Cyclones
C. Coriolis effect moves air
counterclockwise (in N. hemisphere)
D. Names
I. Tropical Cyclones
C. Coriolis effect moves air
counterclockwise (in N. hemisphere)
D. Names
1. Typhoons (in western Pacific Ocean)
I. Tropical Cyclones
C. Coriolis effect moves air
counterclockwise (in N. hemisphere)
D. Names
1. Typhoons (in western Pacific Ocean)
2. Cyclones (Indian ocean)
I. Tropical Cyclones
C. Coriolis effect moves air
counterclockwise (in N. hemisphere)
D. Names
1. Typhoons (in western Pacific Ocean)
2. Cyclones (Indian ocean)
3. Hurricanes
I. Tropical Cyclones
E. Paths of a storm
II. Hurricanes
II. Hurricanes
A. Parts
II. Hurricanes
A. Parts
1. Eye
Center of hurricane, characterized by calm
winds and low pressure
II. Hurricanes
A. Parts
1. Eye
2. Eyewall
Band immediately surrounding eye, where
strongest winds are found.
II. Hurricanes
A. Parts
B. Stages
II. Hurricanes
A. Parts
B. Stages
Tropical
Depression
38 mph
II. Hurricanes
A. Parts
B. Stages
Tropical
Depression
Tropical
Storm
38 mph
39-73 mph
II. Hurricanes
A. Parts
B. Stages
Tropical
Depression
Tropical
Storm
Hurricane
38 mph
39-73 mph
74- mph
II. Hurricanes
A. Parts
B. Stages
C. Categories
Use the Saffir-Simpson scale
Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale
Category
1
Sustained
Winds
Damage
74-95 mph
Minimal
Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale
Sustained
Winds
Damage
1
74-95 mph
Minimal
2
96-110 mph
Moderate
Category
Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale
Sustained
Winds
Damage
1
74-95 mph
Minimal
2
3
96-110 mph
111-130 mph
Moderate
Extensive
Category
Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale
Sustained
Winds
Damage
1
74-95 mph
Minimal
2
3
96-110 mph
111-130 mph
Moderate
Extensive
4
131-155 mph
Extreme
Category
Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale
Sustained
Winds
Damage
1
74-95 mph
Minimal
2
3
96-110 mph
111-130 mph
Moderate
Extensive
4
5
131-155 mph
>155 mph
Extreme
Catastrophic
Category
II. Hurricanes
D. Hazards
1. Storm surges
A ‘mound’ of water driven to shore by hurricane
winds (up to 18 ft above normal level)
II. Hurricanes
D. Hazards
1. Storm surges
2. Rains
Can cause flooding
II. Hurricanes
D. Hazards
1. Storm surges
2. Rains
3. Winds
Can cause severe structural damage.
The End
Recurring Weather
I. Floods and Droughts
I. Floods and Droughts
A. Floods
Occur when more water falls than can infiltrate
or runoff an area.
I. Floods and Droughts
A. Floods
1. Flash floods can develop within minutes
or hours of rain.
I. Floods and Droughts
A. Floods
1. Flash floods can develop within minutes
or hours of rain.
2. Almost half of flood fatalities are vehicle
related.
I. Floods and Droughts
A. Floods
1. Flash floods can develop within minutes
or hours of rain.
2. Almost half of flood fatalities are vehicle
related.
3. Six inches of fast moving water can
knock you off your feet.
I. Floods and Droughts
B. Droughts
Extended periods of less than normal rainfall.
I. Floods and Droughts
B. Droughts
1. Causes
High pressure system with no jet stream activity
I. Floods and Droughts
B. Droughts
1. Causes
2. Effects
Affects agriculture, livestock, & people.
II. Temperature conditions
A. Heat waves
Extended periods of above-normal temperatures
II. Temperature conditions
A. Heat waves
1. Causes
Caused by high pressure system – sinking air
warms as it’s compressed and blocks cooler air.
II. Temperature conditions
A. Heat waves
1. Causes
2. Humidity adds to discomfort
Moisture in the atmosphere decreases
evaporation of sweat from your skin.
II. Temperature conditions
A. Heat waves
1. Causes
2. Humidity adds to discomfort
3. Heat index
Table used to determine apparent temperature
Heat Index
II. Temperature conditions
B. Cold waves
Extended period of colder than normal temps.
II. Temperature conditions
B. Cold waves
1. Causes
Caused by high pressure polar or arctic air
II. Temperature conditions
B. Cold waves
1. Causes
2. Jet stream keeps these air masses
moving.
II. Temperature conditions
B. Cold waves
1. Causes
2. Jet stream keeps these air masses
moving.
3. Wind enhances the cold sensation.
The wind chill factor estimates the heat lost by
human skin due to cold and wind.
The End