4-1 Role of Climate

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Transcript 4-1 Role of Climate

4-1 Role of Climate
What is climate and what is weather?
A. Climate refers to the average year after year conditions of
temperature and precipitation in a particular region. It causes
a wide range of environmental conditions that shape our
B. Weather is a day to day conditions of Earth’s atmosphere
at a particular time and place.
1. Caused by the many factors.
a. Trapping of heat
b. Latitude
c. Winds and ocean currents
d. Amount of precipitation
e. Shape and elevation
f. Solar energy
Greenhouse Effect
A. CO2, methane, water vapor, and other
gases trap heat energy and maintain Earth’s
temperature range.
B. A natural insulating blanket of gases
that trap sun light from escaping into
C. Solar energy penetrates the atmosphere
and is converted to heat energy and then
some radiates back to space, but most stays
3. Effect of latitude on climate
A. Earth is titled on its axis 23.5º.
B. Solar radiation strikes different parts of
Earth’s surface at an angle that varies
throughout the year.
C. Equator receives direct suns rays so it
stays warm and the poles receive less
direct so they remain cold.
3. This unequal heating creates 3 different zones.
4. Polar zone
A. Located in the areas around the North and
South poles, between 66.5º and 90º north and
south latitudes.
B. Sun’s rays are at a very low angle.
5. Temperate zones
A. Sit between the polar zones and the tropic
zones, because this zone is affected mostly by
the changing angle of the sun the climate zone
ranges from hot to cold seasons.
6. Tropical zone
A. Located between 23.5º North and 23.5º South
B. Receive the most sunlight year round and always
warm.( near equator)
7. Heat Transfer
A. Unequal heating of Earth surface drives winds and
ocean currents which transport heat throughout the
B. Warm air near the equator rises and cool air over
the poles sinks towards the ground. This upward and
downward movement of air creates winds that move
heat throughout the atmospheres.
• Where air is warmed and then rises, it lifts the
atmosphere upward, releasing pressure at the
Earth's surface. This makes a low pressure
• When air gets cool, the water vapor in it
condenses to form clouds.
• Low pressure zones are associated
with rainfall.
• When air gets warm, it can hold more water as
water vapor, meaning the water evaporates.
• High pressure zones are associated with
clear, sunny skies. Where cool air sinks back to
the Earth, it presses the atmosphere onto the
surface, increasing the pressure and creating a
high pressure zone.
9. Land masses and wind
A. Landmass can affect wind patterns and interfere
with the movement of air masses (Orographic effect)
1. A mountain range can cause moist air to rise,
cools and condenses, forms clouds bringing
2. Once the air mass reaches the far side of the
mountain, moisture is lost.
3. Result is a rain shadow
an area with a dry climate
like a desert.
. Dentrochronology
A. Study of tree rings .
1. Weather (dentroclimology)
2. Age
3. Grew on a slope
4. Insect infestation
5. Fire