How Oceans and Mountains Affect Weather and

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Transcript How Oceans and Mountains Affect Weather and

How Oceans and Mountains Affect
Weather and Climate
TCAP Coach
Chapter 3
Lesson 14
How Oceans and Mountains Affect
Weather and Climate
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Objectives:
Describe the effects of the ocean on
weather and climate.
Explain how mountains affect weather and
climate
How Oceans and Mountains Affect
Weather and Climate
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Year after year, the average daily
temperature in July for Nashville is about
80.6oF. In Phoenix, Arizona, it is about
89.6oF. The usual rainfall in Nashville over a
year is about 44.9 inches. In Phoenix it is
only about 7.3 inches. Why is Phoenix
warmer and drier than Nashville?
In this lesson, you will explore some factors
that affect temperature and rainfall in
different locations.
Climate and Weather
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Weather is the condition of the air at a
certain time and place.
The weather where you live can change
from hour to hour, or day to day. But the
climate stays the same for many years.
Climate is the average weather of a place
over a long period of time. For example, the
climate in Tennessee is not too cold or too
hot, too dry or too wet. But at any particular
time, the weather might be cold, hot, dry, or
wet.
Climate and Weather
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Another example: The climate of many
deserts, such as those in Arizona, is hot and
dry. But on some days rain may fall. And the
temperature may be cool at times. A
passing wet or cool day in a desert is its
weather. Its general dryness and hotness is
its climate.
Climate and Weather
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The climate of an area can be dry and cold,
like the climate of Antarctica.
The climate can be dry and warm, like the
climate in the southwestern part of the
United States and in the Sahara Desert in
northern Africa.
The climate can be wet and cool, like the
climate in England, Scotland, Ireland, and
parts of the northwestern United States.
The climate can also be wet and warm, like
in the Amazon rain forest in South America.
Climate and Weather
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In general, areas closer to Earth’s poles are
cooler than areas closer to Earth’s equator.
For example, the climate in Tennessee is
much warmer than the climate in Alaska.
Alaska is closer to the North Pole than
Tennessee. Tennessee is closer to the
equator than Alaska.
Climate does not depend just on distance
from the equator. Mountains and oceans
also affect weather and climate.
Climate and Weather
Mountains
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Mountains affect temperature.
In general, high places have cooler
temperatures than lower places.
The air near Earth’s surface tends to get
cooler the higher you go.
Mountains also affect rainfall.
Think of warm, wet air moving toward a
mountain. The shape of the mountain forces
the air to move upward. As the air moves
up, it cools.
Mountains
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Now, the cool air cannot hold as much
moisture as warm air, so the moisture forms
tiny water droplets.
The droplets come together to form larger
droplets.
When they get heavy enough, they fall as
rain.
Most of the water falls out of the air on this
side of the mountain.
Mountains
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The air that moves over the top of the
mountain is cool and dry.
This cool, dry air sinks down the other side.
Places on this side of the mountain tend to
have a cool, dry climate.
The diagram on the next slide shows this
rain shadow effect.
Mountains
Oceans
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Places near oceans often have mild climates.
This is because water takes in heat more slowly
than land.
Water also releases heat more slowly than land.
In summer, ocean water tends to stay cool. The
water keeps the air above the water and nearby
land cool.
In winter, the water slowly releases heat. This
heat keeps the air above the water and nearby
land warmer.
Oceans
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The climate of a place is also affected by
ocean currents.
An ocean current is a stream of water that
flows through an ocean.
Some currents are warm. Other currents
are cool.
Warm currents generally flow away from the
equator. Cool currents generally flow away
from Earth’s poles.
Oceans
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The Gulf Stream is a warm current that
flows around the tip of Florida from the Gulf
of Mexico.
It moves northward along the East Coast of
North America.
Then the gulf stream turns eastward toward
Europe.
This current produces a warmer climate in
England and Ireland than would be usual for
places so far north of the equator.
Oceans
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On the other side of the United States, a
cold current called the California Current
flows southward along the West Coast.
This current keeps much of the coast cooler
than it would otherwise be.
1. Temperatures in mountain areas
tend to be
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A. lower than in valley areas
B. higher than in valley areas
C. the same as in valley areas
D. higher than in areas near oceans
1. Temperatures in mountain areas
tend to be
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A. lower than in valley areas
2. Which of the following
statements is TRUE?
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A. Water heats and cools faster than land.
B. Land heats and cools more slowly than
water.
C. Water heats and cools more slowly than
land.
D. Water and land heat and cool at the
same rate.
2. Which of the following
statements is TRUE?
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C. Water heats and cools more slowly than
land.
3. Warm, wet air moves up a mountain.
What kind of air will move down the
other side?
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A. cool, dry air
B. cool, wet air
C. warm, dry air
D. warm, wet air
3. Warm, wet air moves up a mountain.
What kind of air will move down the
other side?
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A. cool, dry air