Chapter 5

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Transcript Chapter 5

Chapter 5
Climate and Terrestrial
Biodiversity
Chapter Overview Questions
 What
factors the earth’s climate?
 How does climate determine where the
earth’s major biome’s are found?
 What are the major types of desert biomes?
 What are the major types of grassland
biomes?
Chapter Overview Questions (cont’d)
 What
are the major types of forest and
mountain biomes?
 How have human activities affected the
world’s desert, grassland, forest, and
mountain biomes?
Updates Online
The latest references for topics covered in this section can be found at
the book companion website. Log in to the book’s e-resources page at
www.thomsonedu.com to access InfoTrac articles.
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InfoTrac: Of Chicks and Frogs. Steven Pinker. Forbes,
August 14, 2006 v178 i3 p40.
InfoTrac: Nice Rats, Nasty Rats: Maybe It's All In the Genes.
Nicholas Wade. The New York Times, July 25, 2006 pF1(L).
InfoTrac: Ancient shrub unlocks a clue to Darwin's
'abominable mystery.’ The Christian Science Monitor, May
18, 2006 p02.
The Jane Goodall Institute
Natural History Museum: Ancient Birds
Core Case Study
Blowing in the Wind:
A Story of Connections
 Wind
connects
most life on earth.


Keeps tropics from
being unbearably
hot.
Prevents rest of
world from
freezing.
Figure 5-1
CLIMATE: A BRIEF INTRODUCTION
 Weather
is a local area’s short-term physical
conditions such as temperature and
precipitation.
 Climate is a region’s average weather
conditions over a long time.

Latitude and elevation help determine climate.
Earth’s Current Climate Zones
Figure 5-2
Animation: Climate and Ocean Currents
Map
PLAY
ANIMATION
Animation: Air Circulation and Climate
PLAY
ANIMATION
Solar Energy and Global Air
Circulation: Distributing Heat
 Global
air
circulation is
affected by the
uneven heating of
the earth’s surface
by solar energy,
seasonal changes
in temperature and
precipitation.
Figure 5-3
Spring
(sun aims directly
at equator)
Winter
(northern hemisphere 23.5 °
tilts away from sun)
Solar
radiation
Summer
(northern hemisphere
tilts toward sun)
Fall
(sun aims directly at equator)
Fig. 5-3, p. 102
Video: Seasonal Variation
PLAY
VIDEO
Coriolis Effect
 Global
air
circulation is
affected by the
rotation of the
earth on its axis.
Figure 5-4
Cold deserts
Westerlies
Northeast trades
Forests
Hot deserts
Forests
Equator
Southeast trades
Westerlies
Hot deserts
Forests
Cold deserts
Fig. 5-4, p. 102
Convection Currents
 Global
air
circulation is
affected by the
properties of air
water, and land.
Figure 5-5
LOW
PRESSURE
Cool, dry
air
HIGH
PRESSURE
Heat released
radiates to space Condensation
Falls, is compressed,
warms
and
precipitation
Rises, expands, cools
Warm,
dry air
Hot, wet
air
Flows toward low pressure,
picks up moisture and heat
HIGH
Moist surface warmed
PRESSURE
by sun
LOW
PRESSURE
Fig. 5-5, p. 103
Convection Cells
 Heat
and moisture
are distributed over
the earth’s surface by
vertical currents,
which form six giant
convection cells at
different latitudes.
Figure 5-6
Cell 3 North
Cold,
dry air
falls
Moist air rises — rain
Polar cap
Arctic tundra
Evergreen
60°coniferous forest
Temperate deciduous
forest and grassland
30°Tropical Desert
Cell 2 North
Cool, dry
air falls
Cell 1 North
deciduous
forest
0°Equator
Tropical
deciduous
30°forest
Tropical
rain forest
Desert
Temperate
deciduous
60°forest and
grassland
Cell 1 South
Cool, dry
air falls
Cell 2 South
Polar cap
Cold,
dry air
falls
Moist air rises,
cools, and releases
Moisture as rain
Moist air rises — rain
Cell 3 South
Fig. 5-6, p. 103
Animation: Air Circulation
PLAY
ANIMATION
Ocean Currents:
Distributing Heat and Nutrients
 Ocean
currents influence climate by
distributing heat from place to place and
mixing and distributing nutrients.
Figure 5-7
(a) Rays of sunlight
penetrate the lower
atmosphere and
warm the earth's
surface.
(b) The earth's surface absorbs
much of the incoming solar radiation
and degrades it to longer-wavelength
infrared (IR) radiation, which rises
into the lower atmosphere. Some of this
IR radiation escapes into space as heat,
and some is absorbed by molecules of
greenhouse gases and emitted as even
longer-wavelength IR radiation, which
warms the lower atmosphere.
(c) As concentrations of
greenhouse gases rise,
their molecules absorb
and emit more infrared
radiation, which adds
more heat to the lower
atmosphere.
Fig. 5-7, p. 104
Animation: Greenhouse Effect
PLAY
ANIMATION
Animation: Increasing Greenhouse
Gases
PLAY
ANIMATION
Ocean Currents:
Distributing Heat and Nutrients
 Global

warming:
Considerable scientific evidence and climate
models indicate that large inputs of greenhouse
gases from anthropogenic activities into the
troposphere can enhance the natural
greenhouse effect and change the earth’s climate
in your lifetime.
Video: Global Warming
 This
video clip is available in CNN Today
Videos for Environmental Science, 2004,
Volume VII. Instructors, contact your local
sales representative to order this volume,
while supplies last.
Animation: El Nino Southern Oscillation
PLAY
ANIMATION
Topography and Local Climate:
Land Matters
 Interactions
between land and oceans and
disruptions of airflows by mountains and
cities affect local climates.
Figure 5-8
Prevailing winds
pick up moisture
from an ocean.
On the windward
side of a mountain range,
air rises, cools, and
releases moisture.
On the leeward side of
the mountain range, air
descends, warms, and
Releases little moisture.
Dry
habitats
Moist
habitats
Fig. 5-8, p. 105
Animation: Coastal Breezes
PLAY
ANIMATION
Animation: Upwelling Along Western
Coasts
PLAY
ANIMATION
BIOMES:
CLIMATE AND LIFE ON LAND
 Different
climates lead to different
communities of organisms, especially
vegetation.


Biomes – large terrestrial regions characterized
by similar climate, soil, plants, and animals.
Each biome contains many ecosystems whose
communities have adapted to differences in
climate, soil, and other environmental factors.
BIOMES:
CLIMATE AND LIFE ON LAND
Figure 5-9
Tropic of
Cancer
Equator
High mountains
Polar ice
Polar grassland (arctic
tundra)
Temperate grassland
Tropical grassland
(savanna)
Chaparral
Coniferous forest
Temperate deciduous forest
Tropical forest
Desert
Tropic of
Capricorn
Fig. 5-9, p. 106
Animation: Biomes Map
PLAY
ANIMATION
BIOMES:
CLIMATE AND LIFE ON LAND
 Biome
type is determined by precipitation,
temperature and soil type
Figure 5-10
Polar
Tundra
Subpolar
Temperate
Coniferous
forest
Desert
Deciduous
Forest
Grassland
Chaparral
Tropical
Desert
Rain forest
Savanna
Tropical
seasonal
forest
Scrubland
Fig. 5-10, p. 107
BIOMES:
CLIMATE AND LIFE ON LAND
 Parallel
changes occur in vegetation type
occur when we travel from the equator to the
poles or from lowlands to mountaintops.
Figure 5-11
Elevation Mountain
ice and snow
Tundra
(herbs,
lichens,
mosses)
Coniferous
Forest
Latitude
Deciduous
Forest
Tropical
Forest
Tropical
Forest
Deciduous Coniferous Tundra
(herbs,
Forest
Forest
lichens,
mosses)
Polar
ice
and
snow
Fig. 5-11, p. 108
DESERT BIOMES
 Deserts
are areas where evaporation
exceeds precipitation.
 Deserts have little precipitation and little
vegetation.

Found in tropical, temperate and polar regions.
 Desert
plants have adaptations that help
them stay cool and get enough water.
Video: Desertification
 This
video clip is available in CNN Today
Videos for Environmental Science, 2004,
Volume VII. Instructors, contact your local
sales representative to order this volume,
while supplies last.
Video: Desertification in China
PLAY
VIDEO

From ABC News, Environmental Science in the Headlines, 2005 DVD.
DESERT BIOMES
 Variations
in
annual
temperature (red)
and precipitation
(blue) in tropical,
temperate and
cold deserts.
Figure 5-12
Freezing point
Month
Mean monthly precipitation (mm)
Mean monthly temperature (C)
Tropical Desert
Fig. 5-12a, p. 109
Freezing point
Month
Mean monthly precipitation (mm)
Mean monthly temperature (C)
Temperate Desert
Fig. 5-12b, p. 109
Freezing point
Month
Mean monthly precipitation (mm)
Mean monthly temperature (°C)
Polar Desert
Fig. 5-12c, p. 109
DESERT BIOMES
 The
flora and
fauna in desert
ecosystems
adapt to their
environment
through their
behavior and
physiology.
Figure 5-13
Red-tailed hawk
Gambel's
Quail
Yucca
Jack
rabbit
Agave
Collared
lizard
Prickly
pear
cactus
Roadrunner
Darkling
Beetle
Bacteria
Diamondback
rattlesnake
Producer
to primary
consumer
Fungi
Kangaroo rat
Primary
to
secondary
consumer
Secondary
to
higher-level
consumer
All producers and
consumers to
decomposers Fig. 5-13, p. 110
GRASSLANDS AND CHAPARRAL
BIOMES
 Variations
in
annual
temperature
(red) and
precipitation
(blue).
Figure 5-14
Freezing point
Month
Mean monthly precipitation (mm)
Mean monthly temperature (C)
Tropical grassland (savanna)
Fig. 5-14a, p. 112
Freezing point
Month
Mean monthly precipitation (mm)
Mean monthly temperature (C)
Temperate grassland
Fig. 5-14b, p. 112
Freezing point
Month
Mean monthly precipitation (mm)
Mean monthly temperature (C)
Polar grassland (arctic tundra)
Fig. 5-14c, p. 112
Video: Caribou
PLAY
VIDEO
Video: Tundra Flyover
PLAY
VIDEO
GRASSLANDS AND CHAPARRAL
BIOMES
 Grasslands
(prairies) occur in areas too moist
for desert and too dry for forests.
 Savannas are tropical grasslands with
scattered tree and herds of hoofed animals.
Temperate Grasslands
 The
cold winters and
hot dry summers
have deep and fertile
soil that make them
ideal for growing
crops and grazing
cattle.
Figure 5-15
Temperate Grasslands
 Temperate
tallgrass prairie
ecosystem in North
America.
Figure 5-16
Golden eagle
Pronghorn
antelope
Grasshopper
sparrow
Coyote
Grasshopper
Blue stem
grass
Prairie
dog
Bacteria
Fungi
Prairie
Coneflower
Producer
to primary
consumer
Primary
to
secondary
consumer
Secondary
to
higher-level
consumer
All producers and
consumers to
decomposers
Fig. 5-15, p. 113
Animation: Prairie Food Web
PLAY
ANIMATION
Polar Grasslands
 Polar
grasslands
are covered with ice
and snow except
during a brief
summer.
Figure 5-17
Long-tailed jaeger
Grizzly bear
Caribou
Horned lark
Willow
ptarmigan
Mosquito
Snowy owl
Arctic
fox
Dwarf
Willow
Lemming
Mountain
Cranberry
Moss campion
Producer
to primary
consumer
Primary
to
secondary
consumer
Secondary
to
higher-level
consumer
All producers and
consumers to
decomposers
Fig. 5-17, p. 114
Chaparral
 Chaparral
has a
moderate
climate but its
dense thickets of
spiny shrubs are
subject to
periodic fires.
Figure 5-18
FOREST BIOMES
 Variations
in annual
temperature (red)
and precipitation
(blue) in tropical,
temperate, and
polar forests.
Figure 5-19
Freezing point
Month
Mean monthly precipitation (mm)
Mean monthly temperature (C)
Tropical rain forest
Fig. 5-19a, p. 116
Freezing point
Month
Mean monthly precipitation (mm)
Mean monthly temperature (C)
Temperate deciduous forest
Fig. 5-19b, p. 116
Freezing point
Month
Mean monthly precipitation (mm)
Mean monthly temperature (C)
Polar evergreen coniferous forest
(boreal forest, taiga)
Fig. 5-19c, p. 116
FOREST BIOMES
 Forests
have enough precipitation to support
stands of trees and are found in tropical,
temperate, and polar regions.
Tropical Rain Forest
 Tropical
rain forests
have heavy rainfall
and a rich diversity
of species.


Found near the
equator.
Have year-round
uniformity warm
temperatures and
high humidity.
Figure 5-20
Ocelot
Harpy
eagle
Blue and
gold macaw
Climbing
monstera
palm
Slaty-tailed
trogon
Squirrel
monkeys
Katydid
Green tree snake
Tree frog
Ants
Bacteria
Bromeliad
Fungi
Producer
to primary
consumer
Primary
to
secondary
consumer
Secondary
to
higher-level
consumer
All producers and
consumers to
decomposers
Fig. 5-20, p. 117
Animation: Rainforest Food Web
PLAY
ANIMATION
Tropical Rain Forest
 Filling
such niches enables species to avoid
or minimize competition and coexist
Figure 5-21
Emergent
layer
Harpy
eagle
Toco
toucan
Canopy
Understory
Woolly
opossum
Shrub
layer
Brazilian
tapir
Black-crowned
antipitta
Ground
layer
Fig. 5-21, p. 118
Temperate Deciduous Forest
 Most
of the trees
survive winter by
dropping their
leaves, which
decay and
produce a nutrientrich soil.
Figure 5-22
Broad-winged
hawk
Hairy
Woodpecker
Gray
Squirrel
White oak
White-tailed
deer
White-footed
mouse
Metallic
wood-boring
beetle and
Larvae
Mountain
Winterberry
Shagbark hickory
Fungi
May beetle
Long-tailed
weasel
Bacteria
Producer
to primary
consumer
Racer
Wood frog
Primary
to
secondary
consumer
Secondary
to
higher-level
consumer
All producers and
consumers to
decomposers
Fig. 5-22, p. 120
Evergreen Coniferous Forests
 Consist
mostly of
cone-bearing
evergreen trees that
keep their needles
year-round to help
the trees survive
long and cold
winters.
Figure 5-23
Great
horned
owl
Blue jay
Marten
Balsam fir
Moose
White
Spruce
Wolf
Bebb
willow
Pine sawyer
beetle
and larvae
Snowshoe
hare
Fungi
Starflower
Bacteria
Producer
to primary
consumer
Primary
Secondary to
to secondary higher-level
consumer
consumer
Bunchberry
All producers and
consumers to
decomposers
Fig. 5-23, p. 121
Video: Sequoias
PLAY
VIDEO
Temperate Rain Forests
 Coastal
areas support huge cone-bearing
evergreen trees such as redwoods and
Douglas fir in a cool moist environment.
Figure 5-24
MOUNTAIN BIOMES
 High-elevation
islands of
biodiversity
 Often have snowcovered peaks that
reflect solar
radiation and
gradually release
water to lowerelevation streams
and ecosystems.
Figure 5-25
HUMAN IMPACTS ON
TERRESTRIAL BIOMES
 Human
activities have damaged or disturbed
more than half of the world’s terrestrial
ecosystems.
 Humans have had a number of specific
harmful effects on the world’s deserts,
grasslands, forests, and mountains.
Natural Capital Degradation
Desert
Large desert cities
Soil destruction by off-road
vehicles
Soil salinization from
irrigation
Depletion of groundwater
Land disturbance and
pollution from mineral
extraction
Fig. 5-26, p. 123
Natural Capital Degradation
Grasslands
Conversion to cropland
Release of CO2 to atmosphere
from grassland burning
Overgrazing by livestock
Oil production and off-road
vehicles in arctic tundra
Fig. 5-27, p. 123
Natural Capital Degradation
Forests
Clearing for agriculture, livestock
grazing, timber, and urban
development
Conversion of diverse forests to tree
plantations
Damage from off-road vehicles
Pollution of forest streams
Fig. 5-28, p. 124
Natural Capital Degradation
Mountains
Agriculture
Timber extraction
Mineral extraction
Hydroelectric dams and
reservoirs
Increasing tourism
Urban air pollution
Increased ultraviolet radiation
from ozone depletion
Soil damage from off-road
vehicles
Fig. 5-29, p. 124
Video: Eagle Fishing
PLAY
VIDEO
Video: Gopher
PLAY
VIDEO
Video: Grizzly Bears
PLAY
VIDEO
Video: Owl Hunting
PLAY
VIDEO