Transcript Document

Energy Transfer in the Atmosphere
A. Some energy from the sun is reflected back into
space, some is absorbed by the atmosphere, and
some is absorbed by land and water on Earth’s
B. Heat – energy that flows from an object with a higher
temperature to one with a lower temperature.
C. There are three types of heat transfer:
1. Radiation – energy transferred in rays or waves
2. Conduction – transfer of energy when molecules bump
into each other through contact
3. Convection – transfer of heat by the flow of a material
In cold air, the molecules move closer together,
making the air more dense, and air pressure rises.
Cold air sinks, pushing warm air up, which then
cools and sinks, forming a convection current.
Air Movement
A. Flow of air is caused by solar radiation and the Coriolis
1. Areas of the Earth receive different amounts of
radiation because earth is curved
a. The equator receives more radiation
b. Areas near the north and south, the
sun’s energy strikes at an angle,
spreading out the energy
2. Coriolis Effect – the rotation of Earth causes
moving air and water to appear to turn to the
right north of the equator and to the left
south of the equator
B. Belts of prevailing winds that distribute heat and
moisture around the globe are called global
Prevailing Westerlies
Trade Winds
Polar Easterlies
C. Sea Breezes and Land Breezes
1. Sea Breeze – created during the day because
solar radiation warms the land more than water
a. Air over land is heated by conduction and rises
b. Cooler, denser air flows toward the warmer,
dense air
c. A convection current results, and wind blows from
the sea toward the land
2. Land breeze – created at night, because land
cools much more rapidly than ocean water
a. Cooler, denser air above land moves over water
b. Warm air over the water rises
c. Wind blows from the land toward the sea