Chapter 3.3 PowerPoint Presentation

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Transcript Chapter 3.3 PowerPoint Presentation

How Introduced
Species Affect
Science 10 – Chapter 3.3
Native species
• Native species are species that naturally inhabit an area
– British Columbia is home to about 3,000 species of native plants, including ferns,
wildflowers, shrubs and trees. These native plants have co-evolved with animals,
fungi, and microbes to form a complex network of relationships.
Lilium columbianum
(Columbia lily)
npsbc: Native Plant Society of British Columbia
Native Species
Myosotis asiatica
(Mountain Forget-Me-Not)
Native Species
Rubus idaeus (Raspberry)
Native Species
Thamnophis sirtalis
Common Garter Snake
Lady Bug
Introduced Species
• Non-native, exotic, or alien species
• Brought intentionally or not intentionally by humans.
• Most are harmless or beneficial to the environment
Salmo trutta
Brown Trout
Introduced species
Invasive species
• Introduced species that take over the habitat of native species or can
invade the bodies of native species.
• Competition – have an advantage over natural habitants
• Predation – interactions between predator and prey not established
• Disease and parasites – gives the less dominant species an upper hand
• Habitat alteration
Change light and oxygen conditions
Change soil chemistry
Change nutrient cycling, pollination, energy flow
Spreading weeds
Eat the native birds, reptiles, amphibians, soil organisms, fruits and vegetation
Invasive species
Asian Lady Beetle
INVASIVE- Introduced 1970’s
Native Ladybug!
9 spots!
Invasive Species
• English Ivy in Stanley Park
• In Stanley Park there are
72 non-native, invasive
plant species.
• SPES – Stanley Park
Ecology Society
• Australia is host to 56 introduced invasive vertebrate animal species
– Cane Toad
– Red Fox
– European Rabbit
– Dromedary Camel
– Water Buffalo
– Feral cats, pigs, donkeys, and goats!
• Feral: descendants of domesticated animals
European Rabbit in Australia
• 24 rabbits brought to Australia in 1859 by estate
owner Thomas Austin in Eastern Australia
• No predators
• Could breed all year with perfect climate
• Ate all the farmer’s crops, outcompeted the
native rabbit
• In 1901-1907 Australia built the RABBIT PROOF
FENCE to halt western expansion!
– Now called State Barrier Fence of Western Australia
– 1833 km long!
– Following the introduction of myxomatosis (a rabbit
virus) to control rabbits in the 1950s, the importance
of the rabbit-proof fence diminished
Invasive Species in BC
• Eastern Grey Squirrel
• The Eastern grey squirrel is one of seven mammals among the 173 invasive
species identified by the Garry Oak Ecosystem Recovery Team (GOERT) as a
species of concern to Garry oak and associated ecosystems.
Garry Oak Invaders
• Eastern Grey Squirrel
• Gypsy moth
• Scotch Broom
ISCMV: Invasive Species Council of Metro
• Raises the profile of invasive species
• Provides education to the public and land managers on invasive species
• Provides land managers assistance with planning invasive species
• Conducts on-the-ground management of invasive plants (inventory and
• Conducts research activities pertaining to invasive species management
• Provides regional direction on invasive species management
ISCMV put invasive species into 5 categories
• Prevent – not here but close by!
– kudzu
• Eradicate – if we act quickly we can get rid of the species
– Common reed
• Control – widespread, very little chance of eradication (not isolated)
– Scotch broom – purple loosestrife
• Contain – isolated but with low chance of eradication
– Giant hogweed
• Bio-control – scientists are hard at work on this method to use another
species to control the problem without creating new problems!
Giant Hogweed
Unit 1 is now complete!
• Biomes and ecosystems are divisions of the biosphere
– Biotic and abiotic components
– Adaptations – the characteristics that help species survive
– Biotic interactions – symbiosis, competition, predation
• Energy flow and nutrient cycles support life in ecosystems
– Food pyramids, food chains, food webs
– Nitrogen, carbon, and phosphorous
– Humans and persistent organic pollutants, bioaccumulation
• Ecosystems continually change over time
– Natural changes – natural selection, adaptive radiation, natural events
– Human influence - carbon footprint, agriculture, resource exploitation
– Introduced species – invasive species can destroy an ecosystem