B. Mutations

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Transcript B. Mutations

It’s the Final Countdown!!!
Keystone Review
Module 2

Cell Growth and Reproduction

Genetics

Theory of Evolution

Ecology
Standards……

Describe the events that occur
during the cell cycle: interphase,
mitosis (nuclear division) or
cytokinesis.
Mitosis

Purpose of Mitosis



Cell Growth
Repair and replacement of damaged
cell parts
Asexual reproduction
Cell Cycle
Mitosis
Meiosis

Purpose of meiosis is chromosomal
reduction. It only occurs in the
organs that produce sex cells.

Reduction division because it
reduces the number of
chromosomes in half

TOOOOOO produce sex
cells/gametes!
Mitosis vs. Meiosis
Mitosis and Meiosis
Standard
 Compare
the processes and
outcomes of mitotic and meiotic
divisions
Mitosis and Meiosis
Standard
 Compare
the processes and
outcomes of mitotic and meiotic
divisions
Mitosis and Meiosis
 Comparison
Chart
Mitosis and Meiosis
Standard Check
Which part of the flower produces cells by meiosis?
a. Style
b. Anther
c. Stigma
d. filament
Mitosis and Meiosis
Standard Check
Which part of the flower produces cells by meiosis?
a. Style
b. Anther produces pollen which are male reproductive cells
c. Stigma
d. filament
Mitosis and Meiosis
CRQ…….Standard Check

Patau syndrome can be a lethal genetic disorder in
mammals, resulting from chromosomes failing to
separate during meiosis.



Identify the step during the process of meiosis when
chromosomes would most likely fail to separate.
Describe how chromosome separation in meiosis is
different from chromosome separation in mitosis.
Compare the effects of a disorder caused by
chromosomes failing to separate during meiosis, to the
effects of chromosomes failing to separate during
mitosis.
Standard
 Describe
how the process of DNA
replication results in the transmission
and/or conservation of genetic
information.
DNA
 DNA is
a polymer, long chain, of
nucleotides.
 These
molecules contain the genetic
information of the cell.
 DNA is
a nucleic acid
DNA
 DNA
 Double
helix
 Strands are complementary- which means
that each DNA strand has the information to
construct the other strand
 DNA is
One strand runs in the 3’ to 5’ direction and the
other runs in the 5’ to 3’ direction
DNA follows semi-conservative replication


anti-parallel
DNA
 DNA Replication




Process
Helicase unwinds the DNA double helix and
separates it into two strands
Y-shaped replication fork will form as the double
unwinds
Single-stranded DNA binding proteins help keep the
strands separate and prevent the strands from
getting back together
This process will continue until the entire molecule
has been replicated
DNA
 DNA Replication
Process
DNA
Standard Check
Which process helps to preserve the genetic information
stored in DNA during DNA replication?
a. The replacement of nitrogen base thymine with
uracil
b. Enzymes quickly linking nitrogen bases with
hydrogen bonds
c. The synthesis of unique sugar and phosphate
molecules fro each nucleotide
d. Nucleotides lining up along template strand
according to base pairing rules
DNA
Standard Check
Which process helps to preserve the genetic information
stored in DNA during DNA replication?
a. The replacement of nitrogen base thymine with
uracil
b. Enzymes quickly linking nitrogen bases with
hydrogen bonds
c. The synthesis of unique sugar and phosphate
molecules fro each nucleotide
d. Nucleotides lining up along template strand
according to base pairing rules
Standard
Explain the functional relationships
between DNA, genes, alleles, and
chromosmes and their roles in
inheritance.
Genetics

Genetics is the study of heredity.

Heredity involves the transmission
of genetic characteristics
Genetics-Vocabulary

Trait-physical characteristic

Chromosome-long stringy aggregate of
genes that carries heredity information and
is formed from condensed chromatin

Gene-segment of DNA that provides
instructions for a particular trait

Allele-alternative form of a gene
Genetics-Vocabulary

Trait-physical characteristic

Chromosome-long stringy aggregate of
genes that carries heredity information and
is formed from condensed chromatin

Gene-segment of DNA that provides
instructions for a particular trait

Allele-alternative form of a gene
Homozygous-same
 Heterozygous-different

Genetics-Vocabulary
Genetics-Vocabulary

Genotype-genetic makeup of an
organism

Phenotype- physical appearance of
the organism
Genetics-Practice

Make sure you know how to draw
and interpret a Punnett Square
GeneticsStandard Practice

In rabbits, black fur (B) is dominant over brown fur (b).
If one parent rabbit is homozygous brown (bb), what is
the probability of producing an offspring with brown
fur? Use the Punnett square to determine your
answer.

Give the phenotype and genotype ratios.
GeneticsStandard Practice

Give the phenotype and genotype ratios.
GeneticsIncomplete dominance
Incomplete dominance- traits in which the heterozygote
shows a different phenotype from the homozygous
dominant phenotype.
Genotype: BB homozygous black
Bb heterozygous
bb homozygous white
Phenotype: BB black fur
Bb
Grey Fur
bb
white fur
GeneticsCodominant
Codominance- traits in which both the alleles are fully
expressed in the heterozygote
Genotype: BB homozygous black
BW heterozygous
WW homozygous white
Phenotype: BB
black fur
BW
Black and White fur
WW
white fur
GeneticsPolygenic Traits
Polygenic- traits in which several genes contribute to
the overall phenotype.
Examples: skin type of humans has four genes involved
and that is why there is such a wide variety of human
skin types.
GeneticsMultiple Alleles
Multiple Alleles-traits that have more than two types of
alleles.
Example: Blood type
There are 3 different alleles for blood type; A,B,O
A is dominant to O. B is dominant to O. A and B are
Codominant.
GeneticsMultiple Alleles
Phenotype
Genotype
O
OO
A
AA or AO
B
BB or BO
AB
AB
GeneticsSex-linked
Sex-linked traits are traits that are located on the sex
chromosomes. Majority are located on the X
chromosome.
Example: colorblindness
Remember: Men have a greater chance of having these
conditions because they only have one X
chromosome.
GeneticsStandard Practice
When an organism has two different alleles for a trait, is
is said to be
a. Recessive
b. Dominant
c. Homozygous
d. Heterozygous
GeneticsStandard Practice
When an organism has two different alleles for a trait, is
is said to be
a. Recessive
b. Dominant
c. Homozygous
d. Heterozygous
GeneticsStandard Practice
Use the following chart to answer the questions
Blood type is inherited through multiple alleles. A
child has type A blood. If the father has type AB
blood, what are all thepossible phenotypes of the
mother?
a. Phenotype O or A
b. Phenotype A or AB
c. Phenotypes A, B, AB
d. Phenotypes O, A, B, AB
GeneticsStandard Practice
Use the following chart to answer the questions
Blood type is inherited through multiple alleles. A
child has type A blood. If the father has type AB
blood, what are all thepossible phenotypes of the
mother?
a. Phenotype O or A
b. Phenotype A or AB
c. Phenotypes A, B, AB
d. Phenotypes O, A, B, AB
GeneticsStandard Practice
Which statement best describes the relationship between
an allele and a gene?
a. An allele is a variation of a gene that can be expressed
as a phenotype.
b. An allele is the part of a gene that attaches to
messenger RNA molecules.
c. An allele is a segment of a DNA molecule that controls
replication of a gene.
d. An allele is the primary protein made by a gene found in
a developing embryo.
GeneticsStandard Practice
Which statement best describes the relationship between
an allele and a gene?
a. An allele is a variation of a gene that can be
expressed as a phenotype.
b. An allele is the part of a gene that attaches to
messenger RNA molecules.
c. An allele is a segment of a DNA molecule that controls
replication of a gene.
d. An allele is the primary protein made by a gene found in
a developing embryo.
GeneticsStandard Practice
A trait in cows is determined by two alleles of a single
gene: allele R is dominant, and allele r is recessive. What
is the probability of the dominant trait being expressed in
the offspring of one RR parent and one rr parent?
a. 25%
b. 50%
c. 75%
d. 100%
GeneticsStandard Practice
A trait in cows is determined by two alleles of a single
gene: allele R is dominant, and allele r is recessive. What
is the probability of the dominant trait being expressed in
the offspring of one RR parent and one rr parent?
a. 25%
b. 50%
c. 75%
d. 100%
All offspring will be heterozygous with Rr genotype so all
offspring will express the dominant trait.
GeneticsStandard Practice
Which form of genetic engineering was used by humans for
many years before the discovery of DNA?
a.
b.
c.
d.
Gene splicing
Gene insertion
Animal cloning
Selective breeding
GeneticsStandard Practice
Which form of genetic engineering was used by humans for
many years before the discovery of DNA?
a.
b.
c.
d.
Gene splicing
Gene insertion
Animal cloning
Selective breeding
Selective breeding results in offspring with desired genetic
traits. Farmers and breeders have been doing this for
centuries.
GeneticsStandard Practice
Genetic engineering has led to genetically modified plants
that resist insect pests and bacterial and fungal infections.
Which outcome would most likely be a reason why some
scientists recommend caution in planting genetically
modified plants?
a. Unplanned ecosystem interactions
b. Reduced pesticide and herbicide use
c. Improved agricultural and yield profit
d. Increased genetic variation and diversity
GeneticsStandard Practice
Genetic engineering has led to genetically modified plants
that resist insect pests and bacterial and fungal infections.
Which outcome would most likely be a reason why some
scientists recommend caution in planting genetically
modified plants?
a. Unplanned ecosystem interactions
b. Reduced pesticide and herbicide use
c. Improved agricultural and yield profit
d. Increased genetic variation and diversity
Standard
Sources of Variation
Describe the processed that can alter composition or number
of chromosomes (i.e. crossing over, nondisjunction,
duplication, translocation, deletion, insertion and inversion
Sources of Variation
during Meiosis

Crossing Over- occurs when two chromosomes
physically overlap and exchange chromosome
material. This process occurs more often on some
chromosomes than other chromosomes and
changes the DNA sequence within each
chromosomes.

This results in an endless number of different
possible genetic combinations.
Sources of Variation
during Meiosis

Nondisjunction- (not coming apart) is the failure
of chromosome pairs to separate properly during
meiosis I or II, during anaphase
Chromosomal Mutations

Deletion- mutation in which a part of a
chromosome or a sequence of DNA is missing

Inversion-a mutation that causes a reversal in the
order of a segment of a chromosome within the
chromosome, or a gene

Translocation-transfer of part of a chromosome to
a different position on a non-homologous
chromosome.

Duplication-a mutation in which there are two or
more copies of a gene or of a segment of a
chromosome.
Point Mutations

Deletion- a mutation that results when one or two
nucleotides are removed

Insertion-a mutation that results when one or two
nucleotides are added

Substitution-a mutation that occurs when when
nucleotide is substituted with another nucleotide

Note: Deletion and Insertion can result in a
frameshift mutation
Point Mutations

Silent mutations


Missense Mutations


Does not affect the amino acid
Causing a change in the reading of the
codons
Nonsense Mutations

Results in a premature stop command
Mutations
Mutations
Standard Check

Which type of change in chromosome composition
is illustrated by the diagram?

A. Deletion

B. Inversion

C. Translocation

D. Insertion
Mutations
Standard Check

Which type of change in chromosome composition
is illustrated by the diagram?

A. Deletion

B. Inversion

C. Translocation

D. Insertion
Mutations
Standard Check

What is a source of genetic variation?

A. Adaption

B. Mutations

C. Replication

D. Transcription
Mutations
Standard Check

What is a source of genetic variation?

A. Adaption

B. Mutations

C. Replication

D. Transcription
Standard

Describe how the processes of
transcription and translation are similar in
all organisms.
RNA

RNA



Made of nucleotides
Sugar in RNA is ribose and it contains
uracil in place of thymine
RNA is a single strand of nucleotides
RNA-Transcription

Transcription is similar to DNA replication, but
only one strand of nucleotides is formed. DNA is
used as a template to make messenger RNA
(mRNA). The mRNA carries the genetic
information from DNA to ribosomes in the
cytoplasm.
RNA-Translation

Translation is the process where all three RNA’s
(mRNA, rRNA and tRNA) work together to
translate the nucleotide language into amino acid
language to build proteins. This occurs in the
cytoplasm
RNA-Standard Check

Information on mRNA is used to make a sequence
of amino acids into a protein by which of the
following processes?

A. Replication
B.
Translation
C.
Transcription
D.
Transference
RNA-Standard Check

Information on mRNA is used to make a sequence
of amino acids into a protein by which of the
following processes?

A. Replication
B.
Translation
C.
Transcription
D.
Transference
Standard

Describe the levels of ecological organization (i.e.,
organism, population, community, ecosystem,
biome, and biosphere)
Ecology Levels of
Organization

Organism

Population

Biological community

Ecosyststem

Biomes

Bioshere
Ecology Levels of
Organization

Population

Group of organisms of one species that live in the
same place at the same time

Population density is the number of organisms
living in a given area.
Ecology Levels of
Organization

Biological community

Group that is made up of several populations
interacting with each other

If there is a change in one population it can
dramatically affect the others living in within the
community
Ecology Levels of
Organization

Growth rate

Is a change in population size, growth rate can be
positive, negative or zero

Exponential growth
Ecology Levels of
Organization

Growth rate

Is a change in population size, growth rate can be
positive, negative or zero

Logistic growth

Carrying capacity
Ecology Levels of
Organization

When a population reaches its carrying capacity, a
number of factors help stabilize it at that size.
They are called density-dependent and densityindependent limiting factors.

Density-Dependent Limiting Factors

Competition

Predation

Parasitism

Crowding/stress
Ecology Levels of
Organization

When a population reaches its carrying capacity, a
number of factors help stabilize it at that size.
They are called density-dependent and densityindependent limiting factors.

Density-Independent Limiting Factors

Weather/fires

Drought/floods

Human activities
Ecology Levels of
Organization

Ecosystem

Study the interactions between populations (biotic
factors) and their physical surroundings (abiotic
factors)

Terrestrial ecosystems

Aquatic ecosystems

Salt water/ marine

Fresh water
Ecology Levels of
Organization

Biomes


Biosphere


Taiga, desert, tropical rainforest
Part of Earth that supports life
Atmosphere, aquatic and terrestrial
Standard

Describe how energy flows through an
ecosystem (e.g., food chains, food webs,
energy)
Energy Flow

Energy is constantly flowing through
ecosystems.

Primary source is SUN

Terms to Know:



Producers/autotrophs
Consumers/heterotrophs
Decomposers
Energy Flow

Trophic level

Organisms are grouped into trophic levels based on
their source of energy----organisms with the same
energy sources are on the same trophic level

Food chain is a simple diagram that shows how
energy and matter flows through an ecosystem

Food web is a diagram that shows multiple food
chains and the interaction organisms have with each
other, in other words a more complex interconnected
system of food chains
Energy Flow

Energy pyramids show how energy decreases at
each succeeding trophic level. The total energy
transfer from one trophic level to the next is only
about 10%.

HEY HEY HEY the 10% Rule
Energy Flow
Standard Check

In the food chain below, which population will most
likely decrease if snakes are removed from the
food chain?

Grassgrasshopppergrogsnakehawk
a. Grass
b. Grasshopper
c. Frog
d. hawk
Energy Flow
Standard Check

In the food chain below, which population will most
likely decrease if snakes are removed from the
food chain?

Grassgrasshoppperfrogsnakehawk
a. Grass
b. Grasshopper
c. Frog
d. hawk
Energy Flow
Standard Check

In the food chain below, identify the initial source of
energy for the ecosystem.

Grassgrasshoppperfrogsnakehawk
a. grass
b. sun
c. grasshopper
d. autotrophs
Energy Flow
Standard Check

In the food chain below, identify the initial source of
energy for the ecosystem.

Grassgrasshoppperfrogsnakehawk
a. grass
b. Sun ultimate source for everything
c. grasshopper
d. autotrophs
Energy Flow
Standard Check

In the food chain below, identify the effect that
would occur on one organism if the snake suddenly
decreases.

Grassgrasshoppperfrogsnakehawk
Energy Flow
Standard Check

In the food chain below, identify the effect that
would occur on one organism if the snake suddenly
decreases.

Grassgrasshoppperfrogsnakehawk

Hawks would be harmed because of a decrease
in their food supply, could decrease the hawk
population due to more competition for
available food.
Standard

Describe how matter recycles through an
ecosystem (i.e., water cycle, carbon cycle, oxygen
cycle, and nitrogen cycle)
Cycles

Water Cycle
Cycles

Water Cycle

Evaporates from lakes, streams, oceans
Condensation into clouds in the atmosphere
Rainfall sends water back to Earth-precipitation
Transpiration water given off by plants



Cycles

Carbon Cycle
Cycles

Carbon Cycle
 CO2 in atmosphere is used by plants during
photosynthesis and enters the ecosystem
 CO2 is released back into the atmosphere
through respiration, burning, volcanic activity,
and artificially through the burning of fossil
fuels (coal, oil, gas)
 CO2 enters aquatic systems through diffusion,
used by marine algae, enters ecosystems and
then is returned through respiration
Cycles

Nitrogen
Cycles

Nitrogen
 Nitrogen is assimilated into plant tissues due
to nitrogen fixing bacteria
 Nitrogen compounds enter the ecosystem
 Nitrogen leaves the ecosystem through
nitrogenous wastes, death of organisms or
denitrifying bacteria which release nitrogen
back into the atmosphere
 Artificial source of nitrogen-fertilizers
Cycles
Standard Check

Which element’s cycle depends on
certain kinds of bacteria to keep the
element available to other organisms?
 a. Carbon
 b. Hydrogen
 c. Nitrogen
 d. phosphorus
Cycles
Standard Check

Which element’s cycle depends on
certain kinds of bacteria to keep the
element available to other organisms?

a. Carbon
b. Hydrogen

c. Nitrogen


although bacteria are a part of the
other cycles of all the elements listed above, only
nitrogen requires the use of nitrogen-fixing bacteria to
keep the cycle going
d. phosphorus
Cycles
Standard Check

Most of the water on Earth is located in the oceans and
has a salinity of about 3.5%. Which statement BEST
explains why rain is fresh water and has a very low
salinity?
 A. When water precipitates from oceans, most of the
salt remains in the oceans.
 B. When water evaporates from oceans, most of the
salt remains in the oceans.
 C. When water precipitates from clouds, most of the
salt remains in the clouds.
 D. When water evaporates from clouds, most of the
salt remains in the clouds.
Cycles
Standard Check

Most of the water on Earth is located in the oceans and
has a salinity of about 3.5%. Which statement BEST
explains why rain is fresh water and has a very low
salinity?
 A. When water precipitates from oceans, most of the
salt remains in the oceans.
 B. When water evaporates from oceans, most of
the salt remains in the oceans.
 C. When water precipitates from clouds, most of the
salt remains in the clouds.
 D. When water evaporates from clouds, most of the
salt remains in the clouds.
Standard

Describe biotic interactions in an
ecosystem (e.g. competition,
predation, symbiosis)
Interactions

Interspecific Competition
 Occurs when different species of organisms prey on
the same essential resource that is in limited supply


Intraspecific Competition
 Occurs between members of the same species
Competition may be harmful to either one or both ends
of an interaction
Interactions

Predation- interaction that is useful for the predator but
mostly fatal to the prey

Symbiosis-interaction between two species that keep a
close physical association, there are three types
 Parasitism
 Mutualism
 Commensalism
Interactions
Standard Check

Which example describes a mutualistic relationship
between organisms?
 A. Young wasps prey on caterpillars
 Crabs eat the remains of dead fish
 Ants protect a tree on which they feed
 Tapeworms feed on food in the intestines of cats
Interactions
Standard Check

Which example describes a mutualistic relationship
between organisms?
 A. Young wasps prey on caterpillars
 Crabs eat the remains of dead fish
 Ants protect a tree on which they feed
 Tapeworms feed on food in the intestines of cats
Ecology
Standard Check

Why are nonnative species often considered a
disturbance in an ecosystem?
 A. They increase mutations
 B. They compete for resources
 C. They have special growth needs
 D. They cause increased biodiversity
Ecology
Standard Check

Why are nonnative species often considered a
disturbance in an ecosystem?
 A. They increase mutations
 B. They compete for resources
 C. They have special growth needs
 D. They cause increased biodiversity
Ecology
Standard Check
Standard

Explain how natural selection can
impact allele frequencies of a
population.
Evolution

What is natural selection?

A mechanism of evolutionary changes that
happens when individuals that are better
adapted in the challenges of the environment
than other individuals survive and reproduce.
Evolution

Natural selection accounts for the
differences among individuals in a
population in survival and the ability to
successfully reproduce.

Essentially, some individuals have alleles
that produce phenotypes that help these
individuals survive in their environment
than other individuals. These successful
individuals will then be able to pass these
traits to their offspring.
Evolution-Darwin
Remember:
 Populations tend to produce more offspring than what
the environment can support
 Resources are limited
 Individuals need to compete for survival
 There is variation among the individuals in a given
population
 These variations can be inherited by the offspring
 Survival of the fittest- the most fit are best adapted to
the environment
 Overtime evolution can occur due to the
advantageous traits accumulating in a population
Evolution-Darwin
Remember:
 INDIVIDUALS DO NOT EVOLVE
POPULATIONS EVOLVE!!!!!!
Evolution-Standard Check

Ancestors of the koala lived on the ground,
but modern koalas live in trees and eat
eucalyptus leaves, which are poisonous to
most other animals. The difference between
the ancestor and modern koalas was caused
by
 A. The presence of homologous
structures
 B. The presence of vestigial organs
 C. Selective breeding
 D. Natural selection
Evolution-Standard Check

Ancestors of the koala lived on the ground,
but modern koalas live in trees and eat
eucalyptus leaves, which are poisonous to
most other animals. The difference between
the ancestor and modern koalas was caused
by
 A. The presence of homologous
structures
 B. The presence of vestigial organs
 C. Selective breeding
 D. Natural selection
Standard

Describe the factors that can contribute to
the development of new species (e.g.,
isolating mechanisms, genetic drift, founder
effect, migration)
Forces of Evolution

Genetic Drift
 Changes in the gene pool of a small
population due to CHANCE!

Chance events may cause the frequencies
of alleles to drift randomly from generation
to generation, since the existing gene pool
may not be accurately represented in the
next generation.
Forces of Evolution

Genetic Drift

The Bottleneck Effect
 The size of the population may be reduced
drastically by such natural disasters as volcanic
eruptions, earthquakes, fires, floods, etc. which kill
organisms NONSELECTIVELY.
By chance some individuals survive. In the small
remaining population, some alleles may be
overrepresented as some under represent and
some alleles may be totally absent.
Bottleneck Effect reduces overall genetic variability in
a population since some alleles may be entirely
absent.
Forces of Evolution

The Founder Effect

The Founder Effect
 When a few individuals colonize a new
habitat, genetic drift is also likely to occur.
Genetic drift in a new colony is called the
founder effect.
 The smaller the founding population, the
less likely its gene pool will be
representative of the original population’s
genetic makeup.
Forces of Evolution

Gene Flow

Gene flow is the migration of fertile
individuals, or the transfer of gametes
between populations.

Natural populations may gain of lose alleles
by gene flow, since they do not have gene
pools which are closed systems.
Forces of Evolution
Standard Check

Horses and tapirs have a common ancestor, but
they now look very different from one another.
Horses are now grassland animals adapted fro
grazing on grass and shrubs. Tapirs are jungle
animals that live in dense forests and eat fruit,
leaves, and aquatic vegetation. Which of the
following led to the development of such
differences in the two species?
 A. Selective breeding
 B. Convergent evolution
 C. DNA hybridization
 D. Natural selection
Forces of Evolution
Standard Check

Horses and tapirs have a common ancestor, but
they now look very different from one another.
Horses are now grassland animals adapted fro
grazing on grass and shrubs. Tapirs are jungle
animals that live in dense forests and eat fruit,
leaves, and aquatic vegetation. Which of the
following led to the development of such
differences in the two species?
 A. Selective breeding
 B. Convergent evolution
 C. DNA hybridization
 D. Natural selection
Standards

Explain how genetic mutations may result in
genotype and phenotypic variations in a
population.
Mutations

Mutations
 A new mutation that is transmitted in
gametes immediately changes the gene
pool of a population by substituting one
allele for another.

Mutations are important to evolution
because they are the original sources of
genetic variation, which is the raw material
for natural selection.
Speciation

Speciation is

When one species splits to form two, that's called speciation.
In animals, we say two individuals are different species if they
can't interbreed with each other. Sometimes this can happen
when two sub-populations are separated. Continents can drift
apart, migrating birds can be blown off course, or fruit flies can
be bred in different labs.

Allopatric speciation is speciation that occurs because
populations live in different places. (Contrast this with
sympatric speciation, where the two populations might live
in the same place but have some other reason why they can't
interbreed.)
Speciation
Speciation

Speciation
Speciation

Speciation

Major cause of speciation is isolation.
 Types of isolation are
•
•
•
•
Geographical
Reproductive
Behavioral
Temporal
Speciation

Speciation

Types of isolation are
•
•
•
•
Geographical
Reproductive
Behavioral
Temporal
Standard

Interpret evidence supporting the theory of
evolution (i.e. fossil, anatomical,
physiological, embryological, biochemical
and universal genetic code)
Evidence for Evolution

Fossil Record
 If today’s species came from ancient
species, then we should be able to find
remains of those species that no longer
exist.
 There are many fossils of organisms that
no longer exist, but resemble organisms
that do exist today.
 Fossil record creates a geological time
scale.
Evidence for Evolution

Comparative Anatomy
 Homologous structures-common ancestor,
structures that are similar in structure but
different in function
 Example: human arm and bat wing
Evidence for Evolution

Comparative Anatomy
 Vestigial Organs
 Seemingly functionless parts, snakes
have tiny pelvic and limb bones, humans
have tail bones
Evidence for Evolution

Comparative Biochemistry and DNA
 There is biochemical similarity in all living
things.

Organisms that are closely related will
have less differences in their proteins,
which means that the amino acid
sequence will be similar which means the
DNA nucleotide sequence will be similar.
Evidence for Evolution

Comparative Embryology
 Developing organisms have similarities in
their early stages of development.
Evidence for Evolution

Observation of Species change
 WolvesDogs
 Light colored peppered mothdark
colored peppered moth
Evidence for Evolution
Standard Check

Fossils of Archaeopteryx show that this animal
had feathers, like a bird. It also had a bony tail,
teeth, and claws on its wings, like a reptile.
These fossils are evidence that support the idea
that
 A. Birds and reptiles have a common ancestor
 B. Birds have changed very little over millions
of years
 C. Reptiles species are more advanced than
bird species
 D. Reptiles are warm-blooded like birds
Evidence for Evolution
Standard Check

Fossils of Archaeopteryx show that this animal
had feathers, like a bird. It also had a bony tail,
teeth, and claws on its wings, like a reptile.
These fossils are evidence that support the idea
that
 A. Birds and reptiles have a common
ancestor
 B. Birds have changed very little over millions
of years
 C. Reptiles species are more advanced than
bird species
 D. Reptiles are warm-blooded like birds
Evidence for Evolution
Standard Check

Which of the following is considered by most
biologists to be the most accurate in
supporting the theory of evolution?
 A. Fossils
 B. Embryology
 C. DNA sequencing
 D. Genetic equilibrium
Evidence for Evolution
Standard Check

Which of the following is considered by most
biologists to be the most accurate in supporting
the theory of evolution?
 A. Fossils
 B. Embryology
 C. DNA sequencing
 D. Genetic equilibrium

DNA sequencing is the most accurate tool for
determining relatedness.
Evidence for Evolution
Standard Check

Which of the following is considered by most
biologists to be the most accurate in supporting
the theory of evolution?
 A. Fossils
 B. Embryology
 C. DNA sequencing
 D. Genetic equilibrium

DNA sequencing is the most accurate tool for
determining relatedness.
STUDENTS

I think you rock…..and I want you all to know
that you are so much higher than 1500’s so
show the state how great you ALL really are.

BEST OF LUCK TOMORROW IWILL BE
THINKING OF YOU ALL!!!!!!!!!!
WHAT IS?
Category: Characteristics Of Life
Ability of populations to change
over time
ANSWER: Evolution
WHAT IS?
 Group
of cells that carry out a
similar function
WHAT IS?
A
group of different species that
live in the same habitat and
interact with one another
WHAT IS?
A
group of different species that
live in the same habitat and
interact with one another
 ANSWER:
community
biological
WHAT IS?
A
community of organisms and
their non living environment
WHAT IS?
A
community of organisms and
their non living environment
 ANSWER:
Ecosystem
WHAT IS?
A
group of organisms of the
same species that live in the same
area and can interbreed
WHAT IS?
A
group of organisms of the
same species that live in the same
area and can interbreed
 ANSWER:
Population
WHAT IS?
 All
of the world and its
atmosphere that supports life is
WHAT IS?
 All
of the world and its
atmosphere that supports life is
 ANSWER:
biosphere