To conserve ecosystem services, biodiversity conservation is needed

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Transcript To conserve ecosystem services, biodiversity conservation is needed

Potential Impacts on
Biodiversity and
Livelihoods
Win Maung
Chairman
Myanmar Environment Institute (MEI)
To protect ecosystem services,
biodiversity conservation is essential
-(supporting services—e.g. nutrient
cycling, soil formation, primary
production; provisioning services—e.g.
food, freshwater, timber and fiber, fuel;
regulating services—e.g. climate
regulation, flood regulation, disease
regulation, water purification; cultural
services—e.g. aesthetic, spiritual,
educational, recreational; MEA 2005).
Biodiversity—the variety of life in all its
forms, including genetic, species and
ecosystem diversity—and its ability to
change and evolve
include ecosystems and habitats,
species and communities,
and genes and genomes
which have social, economic, cultural
and scientific importance.
Habitat (Terrestrial and Aquatic)
-Habitat destruction - major threat to
the maintenance of biodiversity.
-Natural habitats
modified habitats ; such as agricultural
areas).
-occur endemic and threatened species
Critical Habitat
-Critical habitat - with high biodiversity
value;
- Threatened species ;
-special significance for endemic or
restricted-range species;
-areas which provide key ecosystem
services;
Legally protected Areas
Unique are to protect conservation
important species, key ecosystem,
natural resources
Environmental Impacts
Example 1-- Mining
· Water use and quality
· Wastes
· Hazardous materials
· Land use and biodiversity
· Air quality
· Noise and vibrations
· Energy Use
· Visual Impacts
Impacts on Land Use and Biodiversity
Habitat alteration –greatest potential
for temporary or permanent alteration
of terrestrial and aquatic habitats
-the development of access routes,
transportation corridors, and
temporary camps, the process plant,
tailings facility, waste and stockpile
areas,
Terrestrial Habitats
-Temporary and permanent terrestrial
habitat alteration
-Clearance
-topsoil is stripped
Aquatic Habitats
Aquatic habitats may be altered
through changes in surface
water and groundwater regimes, and
resulting increased pressures on fish
and wildlife communities.
Earth-moving operations may mobilize
sediment which can enter
watercourses,erosion, mass wasting
and degradation of
the channel or lake bed
Example 2
Ports, Harbors, and Terminals
· Dredged materials management
· Air emissions
· General waste reception
· Wastewater
· Solid waste management
· Hazardous materials and oil management
· Noise
· Biodiversity
Impacts on Biodiversity
Construction and maintenance
dredging, disposal of dredge
spoil, construction of piers, wharves,
breakwaters, and other
water-side structures, and erosion may
lead to short and long-term impacts on
aquatic and shoreline habitats.
Direct impacts
may include the physical removal or
covering of sea floor, shore,
or land-side habitat, in addition to
changes to water flow patterns
and related sedimentation rates and
patterns
Potential impacts to shoreline
vegetation, wetlands, coral
reefs, fisheries, bird life, and other
sensitive aquatic and
near-shore habitat
Cement and Lime Manufacturing
Thermal Power Plants
Crude Oil and Petroleum Product Terminals
Offshore Oil and Gas Development
Petroleum Refining
Phosphate Fertilizer Manufacturing
Railways
Airport
Hydropower
Factories
Livelihoods
Community and Resource Use
provisioning services—e.g. food,
freshwater, soil, timber and fiber, fuel,
medicinal plants, domestic animal feed
Negative/Adverse Impacts by the project
on provisioning services will cause negative
impacts on the livelihoods of the locals
Positive Impacts
Infrastructure—Roads, Transportation
Job Opportunity
CSR Programme
Environmental Issues/Impacts
1.Physical Environment
2.Biological Environment/ Biodiversity
3.Social Environment
Sustainability
Responsible Business