Missouri`s Least Wanted Wetland Species

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Transcript Missouri`s Least Wanted Wetland Species

MISSOURI’S MOST
least wanted
Wetland species
Bruce Henry
Natural History Biologist
Southeast Region
Missouri Department of Conservation
[email protected]
573.290.5858 ext 4423
• All photo credits to
bugwood.org unless noted
• Distribution maps: EDDMapS. 2016.
Early Detection & Distribution Mapping
System. The University of Georgia - Center
for Invasive Species and Ecosystem Health.
Available online at http://www.eddmaps.org/;
last accessed January 22, 2016
"On a global basis...the two great
destroyers of biodiversity are, first
habitat destruction and, second,
invasion by exotic species”
- E.O. Wilson
Why Worry About
Invasives?
Number 1: Exotic Species Reduce the Variety in our
Natural World
Number 2: Exotic Species Alter Natural Processes
Number 3: Exotic Species are a risk to the health of human
beings and organisms we utilize to survive
Number 4: Exotics Cause Extinction
Number 5: Exotics Cause Economic Harm
natural communities
At risk
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Fen Complex (Ozark, Prairie, Muck, Marl, Forested, Glacial)
Marsh
Shrub Swamp
Swamp
Sinkhole Pond /Pond Marsh / Pond Shrub Swamp
Springs and Spring Branch
Acid Seep
Stream Edge
Native species
At risk
Wetland invasive Species
id
Life
history
control
Japanese Knotweed
Polygonum cuspidatum
Reynoutria japonica
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Leslie J Merhoff, uconn, bugwood.org
Perennial, herbaceous shrub
Resembles bamboo
Reproduces vegetatively
Difficult to eradicate
August reconnissance
Japanese Knotweed
Chris evans, rtrcwma, bugwood.org
Japanese Knotweed control options
• Stem Injection (5cc glyphosate)
• Foliar: (imazapyr, aminopyralid, triclopyr)
• Cut stem: (25% tryclopyr/garlon, !!)
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Mowing: not recommended!
Hand pulling: not recommended
Fire: no data
Solarization: (?)
Biocontrol: sap-sucking
plant louse, Aphalara
itadori (GB)
Jkinjector.com
Purple Loosestrife
Lythrum salicaria
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Perennial, Herbaceous forb
Garden trade
Resembles blue vervain
2,500,000 seeds per plant
Relatively easy to kill
Maine.gov
Purple loosestrife
Leslie J Mehrhoff, uconn, bugwood.org
Purple loosestrife control options
• Hand pulling: best option for small populations
• Foliar application: (aquatic glyphosate)
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Fire: when phenologically appropriate (not feasable)
Solarization: an option in small areas
Mowing/cutting: not recommended
Biocontrol: loosestrife beetles
(four species approved)
Minnesota dnr photos
phragmites
phragmites australis
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Perennial
Warm-season grass
Most widely distributed plant
Can tolerate brackish water
Can be difficult to eradicate
Low seed production
Phragmites
Phragmites control options
• Foliar application: (aquatic glyphosate, imazapyr)
• Fire: use in IPM regime to remove thatch
• Mowing/cutting: use in IPM
• Hand pulling: not recommended
• Disking: not recommended
• Biocontrol: research in progress (NY DOT)
Western Maryland RCD
http://www.spsonline.com/sps/services/phragmites-control-0
JAPANESE STILTGRASS
MICROSTEGIUM VIMINEUM
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Annual
Warm-season grass
Shade tolerant
Water, trail, and hoof
Forest product industry, recreation
Easy to kill, difficult to eradicate
JAPANESE STILTGRASS
Chris evans, rtrcwma, bugwood.org
Stiltgrass control options
• Foliar application: (clethodim, sethoxydim,
glyphosate)
• Fire: use in IPM regime to remove thatch, prevent seed
Backpack torches
• Mowing/cutting: use in IPM
• Hand pulling: small populations
• Disking: not feasable
• Biocontrol: Bipolaris spp. fungi?
Illinois dnr photo
Reed Canary Grass
Phalaris arundinacea
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Perennial
Cool-season grass
Rhizomatous
Forage grass
Shade intolerant
Scourge of northern wetlands
Reed Canary Grass
http://www.naturalheritage.state.pa.us/photos/Communities/Bluejoint%20-%20Reed%20Canary%20Grass%20Marsh/IMG_0238.jpg
Reed canary Grass control options
• Foliar application: (clethodim, sethoxydim,
glyphosate)
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Fire: use in IPM regime to remove thatch, prevent seed
Mowing/disking: use in IPM, best in fall/before flowering
Cutstem: (20% glyphosate) small populations
Hand pulling: very small populations
Biocontrol: unlikely
Pleasant Valley CONservancy photo
Planning a control program
• Map known populations
• Determine source (planted or dispersed?)
• Identify potential source populations and
monitor
• Qualify the habitat: high quality community at
risk, ROW, trails, or waste ground?
Developing a control strategy
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Prevent further spread
Choose appropriate control methods.
Be prepared to continue treatment for years
Follow product label if using herbicides
Prioritize populations
KILL. Begin with satellite populations
Attack core populations
Monitor and reassess, CONTINUE KILLING
Thanks for
your
attention!
Any
questions?
Call bruce in cape Girardeau at
573.290.5858 x 4423 to report
sightings in SOUTHEAST region