utkeeb464_lecture18_symbiosis_2016x

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Transcript utkeeb464_lecture18_symbiosis_2016x

Symbiosis
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_dzWBEAhAY8
Brian O’Meara
EEB464 Fall 2016
1. Sea levels are rising due to global warming. Imagine a rugged landmass that will
then be subdivided due to ocean barriers. How will this affect speciation, extinction,
and diversification rates? Why?
2. How could a taphonomic bias affect our interpretation of Cope’s rule?
3. The appendix periodically gets inflamed and can even lead to death. Give a
hypothesis for why humans have it and how you could test this hypothesis.
4. What is the distinction between sorting and selection?
5. What maintains an even sex ratio in many species?
6. Many species go through costly male competition: which male has the brightest
tail, prettiest bower, loudest call. You watch a nature documentary that says this is
for the good of the species, so that only the best males pass on their genes and so
the species as a whole improves. Is this accurate? Why or why not?
7. Describe Dobzhansky-Muller incompatibilities and their importance.
8. Describe a major event in earth history and how life would be different today had
it not happened.
Definitions of symbiosis
Understanding how and why symbioses can
change through time
Making inferences about biology from graphs
Symbiosis = close, often long-lasting (for at least one
partner) associations between organisms.
Symbiosis
Symbiosis
Mutualism
Commensalism
Parasitism
Both benefit
One benefits,
one neutral
One benefits,
one loses
Mutualism
Commensalism
Parasitism
Both benefit
One benefits,
one neutral
One benefits,
one loses
+
0
-
Benefit to less-helped host
Mutualism
Commensalism
Parasitism
Both benefit
One benefits,
one neutral
One benefits,
one loses
+
0
-
Benefit to less-helped host
+
0
Benefit to less-helped
-
Duration of interaction for
shorter-lived species
Lifelong
Brief
+
0
Benefit to less-helped
-
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=e4xrdeagyYM
Duration of interaction for
shorter-lived species
Lifelong
remora-shark
Brief
+
0
Benefit to less-helped
-
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rLtUk-W5Gpk
Duration of interaction for
shorter-lived species
Lifelong
wasp-aphid
remora-shark
Brief
+
0
Benefit to less-helped
-
Duration of interaction for
shorter-lived species
Lifelong
wasp-aphid
remora-shark
predation
Brief
+
0
Benefit to less-helped
-
Martin Purvis, http://lepidoptera.butterflyhouse.com.au/lyca/evagor.html
Merlin Crossley, http://lepidoptera.butterflyhouse.com.au/lyca/evagor.html
Pierce et al. The costs and benefits of cooperation between the Australian lycaenid butterfly, Jalmenus evagoras, and its attendant ants. Behavioral Ecology and
Sociobiology (1987) vol. 21 (4) pp. 237-248
• Ant attendance reduces predation on
caterpillars/pupae
Pierce et al. The costs and benefits of cooperation between the Australian lycaenid butterfly, Jalmenus evagoras, and its attendant ants. Behavioral Ecology and
Sociobiology (1987) vol. 21 (4) pp. 237-248
• Ant attendance reduces predation on
caterpillars/pupae
• Ants heavier after leaving the
caterpillars/pupae
Pierce et al. The costs and benefits of cooperation between the Australian lycaenid butterfly, Jalmenus evagoras, and its attendant ants. Behavioral Ecology and
Sociobiology (1987) vol. 21 (4) pp. 237-248
• Ant attendance reduces predation on
caterpillars/pupae
• Ants heavier after leaving the
caterpillars/pupae
• Adults reared with ants smaller than
ones reared without ants
Duration of interaction for
shorter-lived species
Lifelong
ant-butterfly
(x-axis butterfly)
wasp-aphid
remora-shark
predation
Brief
+
0
Benefit to less-helped
-
http://www.newscientist.com/articleimages/dn18439/0-zoologger-the-very-hungry-caterpillar-usurps-a-queen.html
Als et al. The evolution of alternative parasitic life histories in large blue butterflies. Nature (2004) vol. 432 (7015) pp. 386-390
Duration of interaction for
shorter-lived species
Lifelong
ant-butterfly
(x-axis butterfly)
butterfly-ant
(x-axis ant)
wasp-aphid
remora-shark
predation
Brief
+
0
Benefit to less-helped
-
http://www.gbrmpa.gov.au/corp_site/key_issues/climate_change/climate_change_and_the_great_barrier_reef/what_is_coral_bleaching
Duration of interaction for
shorter-lived species
Lifelong
coral-zooanthellae
ant-butterfly
(x-axis butterfly)
butterfly-ant
(x-axis ant)
wasp-aphid
remora-shark
predation
Brief
+
0
Benefit to less-helped
-
Huelsenbeck et al. Statistical tests of host-parasite cospeciation. Evolution (1997) vol. 51 (2) pp. 410-419
http://evolution.berkeley.edu/evolibrary/article/history_24