Adaptation

download report

Transcript Adaptation

Adaptation
Evolution
Evolution involves two interrelated phenomena
– Adaptation: modifications of a species phenotype
to help them succeed in their environment
– Speciation: the formation of a new species from a
pre-existing species
Adaptation
• A structural, behavioral, or physiological
process that helps an organism survive and
reproduce in its environment
• Eg. Camouflage allows an organism to blend in
its environment to evade predators or sneak
up on prey
Camouflage
How does the camouflage in these
fish help them survive?
Camouflage
How does the camouflage in this
tiger help it survive?
Camouflage Videos
Structural Adaptations: Saiga
• The saiga has an odd shaped nose.
• When it breathes, cool air is circulated in its
large nasal cavity, warming the air
Why do you
think we
have such a
big nose?
Structural Adaptations:
Snowshoe hare
Large feet act as
snowshoes
Can you explain
adaptations of the
snowshoe hare?
Structural Adaptation:
King Vulture
Featherless head allows it to
enter its head into carcasses,
and not get stuck on the way
out
Mimicry
• A structural adaptation in which a harmless
species resembles a harmful species in
coloration, structure, or movement
The blue jay, after eating the monarch, promptly vomit it because of a
bad taste. The viceroy, by looking like the inedible monarch, avoids
predation from predators.
Mimicry: Katydid
• The katydid mimics a dead leaf to remain
unseen
Mimicry: Orchid Mantis
• The orchid mantis, which resembles the
orchid flower, hides amongst orchid flowers
waiting for its prey (other insects)
Mimicry: Coral Snakes
• The eastern coral snake is
venomous, and displays
warning coloration
• The scarlet king snake is a
non-venomous snake
Motion Mimicry Video
Behavioral Adaptations:
Hibernating
• Many animals hibernate in cold months to
conserve energy
Behavioral Adaptations
• Nocturnal animals – awake at night, conserve
energy and avoid overheating during the day,
protection of darkness
• Migratory animals – animals migrate to areas
with abundant nutrients at different times of
year, or for mating
Physiological Adaptations:
Venom
• Venomous animals make venom for defense
• Often accompanied with warning colouration
Physiological adaptations:
Body heat
• Our bodies can change blood flow patterns to
maintain a near constant body temperature