The Theory of Evolution Notes:

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Transcript The Theory of Evolution Notes:

The Theory of Evolution
Notes:
Chapter 15
Two theories on how species
emerge:

Creationism:

Life originated from
God, and God created
different species

Evolution:

Organisms have
slowly changed over
time to give us the
species we see today
Charles Darwin: The father of evolution

1831- cruised on the
HMS Beagle for 5
years
 Studied plants, birds,
reptiles on Galapagos
Islands
Charles Darwin:

Natural Selection: “survival of the fittest”

Organisms with favorable traits (adaptations) for a particular
environment survive, reproduce, and pass on these traits to
their offspring
Types of Adaptations:

Structural:

Have body parts that aid survival
• Example: Large teeth/ claws of mole rats to dig tunnels
Types of Adaptations:

Mimicry:

Organism copies another
to deter predators
• Example: Harmless fly
(wasp)
Types of Adaptations:

Camouflage:

Organisms that blend in with their surroundings to escape
predation
• Example: peppered moth in 1800s
After the Industrial Revolution
Before the Industrial Revolution
Scientific Evidence for Evolution:

Fossils:

Record of early life
 First land animal
Whale Evolution
Horse Evolution
Tetrapod Skeleton
Scientific Evidence for Evolution:

Anatomy: body parts

Homologous Structures: similar
arrangement
• Example: Forelimbs of crocodiles,
whales, & birds

Analogous Structures: similar
function
• Example: bird & butterfly wings

Vestigial organs: serve little or
no purpose in today’s
organisms
• Example: eyes of blind mole rats
Scientific Evidence of Evolution:

Embryology:

Similar development
• Example: vertebrate
embryo development
Scientific Evidence for Evolution:

Biochemistry:

Use of DNA, RNA, amino acid sequences
• Example: human and chimpanzee DNA is nearly 99% identical