Humans and the Environment Vocabulary Review

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Transcript Humans and the Environment Vocabulary Review

Vocabulary Review
Ch 22 – Humans
and the
Environment
The study of the
interaction between
humans and their own
environment.
Environmental
science
Earth’s rock interior
that extends from
the molten center of
the planet’s core to
the solid surface of
its crust
Geosphere
The portion of Earth
that is water,
including all oceans,
lakes, and rivers
Hydrosphere
The mixture of gases
that surrounds the
Earth above the
hydrosphere and
geosphere
Atmosphere
The part of the
Earth where life
exists
Biosphere
The layer of the
atmosphere at an
altitude of 15 to 40
km in which ozone
absorbs ultraviolet
solar radiation
Ozone layer
The warming of the surface
and lower atmosphere of
Earth that occurs when
carbon dioxide, water vapor,
and other gases in the air
absorb and reradiate infrared
radiation
Greenhouse
effect
The variety of
organisms considered
at all levels, from
populations to
ecosystems
Biodiversity
An index that
combines the number
and relative
abundance of
different species in a
community
Species diversity
The amount of
variation in the
genetic material
within all members of
a population
Genetic diversity
Substances that
cause unintended
harm in air, water,
or soil
Pollution
Water vapor mixed
with chemicals that
result from human
activities
Smog
A type of hydrocarbon in
which some or all of the
hydrogen atoms are replaced
by chlorine and fluorine; used
in coolants for refrigerators
and air conditioners and in
cleaning solvents
Chlorofluorocarbon
The accumulation of
increasingly large
amounts of toxic
substances within
each successive link
of the food chain
Biological
Magnification
Precipitation, such as rain,
sleet, snow, that contains
a high concentration of
acids, often because of
the pollution of the
atmosphere
Acid precipitation
The death of every
member of a species
Extinction
A species that is critical
to the functioning of the
ecosystem in which it
lives because it affects
the survival in its
community
Keystone species
The condition in which
human needs are met
in such a way that a
human population can
survive indefinitely
Sustainability
A branch of biology
that is the study of
the management of
natural resources and
the preservation of
biodiversity
Conservation
biology
The science of
rehabilitating, replacing,
or acquiring the equivalent
of any natural resources
that have been injured,
destroyed, or lost
Restoration
biology
A species that is
especially sensitive to
ecological change and
thus can serve as an
indicator of
environmental conditions
Bioindicator
Region of the biosphere
that has been identified
by conservationists as
having high species
diversity and as being
highly threatened by
human
Biodiversity
hotspot
A form of tourism that
supports the
conservation and
sustainable development
of ecologically unique
areas
Ecotourism
The study of ecology
in areas that are
densely populated by
humans
Urban ecology