The average year-after-year conditions of temperature and

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Transcript The average year-after-year conditions of temperature and

The average year-after-year conditions of
temperature and precipitation in a particular
region are referred to as the region’s
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1. weather.
2. latitude.
3. ecosystem.
4. climate.
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All of the following factors contribute to
Earth’s climate EXCEPT
1.
2.
3.
4.
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latitude.
longitude.
transport of heat.
shape and
elevation of
landmasses.
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Climate is a global factor that
produces
1. Earth’s unique ocean and
atmosphere.
2. the shape and elevation of
landmasses.
3. a wide range of environmental
conditions that shapes
communities.
4. solar energy within the
atmosphere.
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Temperatures on Earth remain within a
suitable range for life as we know it because
of the
1. unequal heating of
Earth’s surface.
2. loss of heat to
space.
3. radiation of sunlight
back into the
atmosphere.
4. greenhouse effect.
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The loss of heat to space is
slowed by
1. radiation entering
the atmosphere.
2. atmospheric
gases.
3. solar energy.
4. the biosphere.
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The greenhouse effect is
1.
the result of an excess of carbon
dioxide in the atmosphere.
a natural phenomenon that maintains
Earth’s temperature range.
the result of the differences in the
angle of the sun’s rays.
an unnatural phenomenon that causes
heat energy to be radiated back into
the atmosphere.
2.
3.
4.
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Earth has three main climate zones because
of the differences in latitude and, thus,
1. amount of
precipitation
received.
2. angle of heating.
3. ocean currents.
4. prevailing winds.
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Cool air over the poles will
1. rise.
2. sink.
3. absorb heat from
the equator.
4. flow parallel to
Earth’s surface.
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The unequal heating of Earth’s
surface
1.
drives wind and ocean
currents.
causes winds that
transport heat
throughout the
biosphere.
has important effects on
Earth’s climate regions.
all of the above
2.
3.
4.
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The tendency for warm air to rise
and cool air to sink results in
1. global wind
patterns.
2. ocean upwelling.
3. unequal heat
distribution.
4. regional
precipitation.
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A mountain can affect climate by
1.
absorbing more solar energy
at the peak than at the base
of the mountain.
causing precipitation to fall
mostly on one side of the
mountain.
pushing a cool air mass back
out over the ocean.
interfering with air currents
and affecting Earth’s rotation.
2.
3.
4.
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Why does Earth have three
main climate zones?
1.
Warm air rises at the equator and cold air 25%
sinks over the poles causing an unequal
distribution of heat over Earth.
There are differences in latitude and,
thus, the angle of heating from the sun.
Continents and other landmasses
physically interfere with global heat
distribution.
The Earth rotates and affects the major
ocean currents.
2.
3.
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Each of the following is an abiotic
factor in the environment EXCEPT
1.
2.
3.
4.
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plant life.
soil type.
rainfall.
temperature.
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Which is a biotic factor that affects the size
of a population in a specific ecosystem?
1.
average temperature of
the ecosystem
type of soil in the
ecosystem
number and kinds of
predators in the
ecosystem
concentration of oxygen
in the ecosystem
2.
3.
4.
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During a long period when there is no rainfall, a mountain
lion may temporarily leave its usual hunting territory to drink
from a farm pond. This behavior is probably due to
1.
its need to find different
foods to eat.
the change in an abiotic
factor in its environment.
its need to find a new
habitat.
the change in a biotic
factor in its environment.
2.
3.
4.
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An organism’s niche is
1.
the range of physical and biological
conditions in which an organism lives
and the way in which it uses those
conditions.
all the physical and biological factors in
the organism’s environment.
the range of temperatures that the
organism needs to survive.
a full description of the place an
organism lives.
2.
3.
4.
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Several species of warblers can live in the
same spruce tree ONLY because they
1.
have different habitats
within the tree.
eat different foods within
the tree.
occupy different niches
within the tree.
can find different
temperatures within the
tree.
2.
3.
4.
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An interaction in which one organism
captures and feeds on another organism is
called
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1. competition.
2. sybiosis.
3. mutualism.
4. predation.
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Different species can share the same
habitat, but competition among them is
reduced if they
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reproduce at
different times.
eat less.
increase their
populations.
occupy different
niches.
1.
2.
3.
4.
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No two species can occupy the same niche
in the same habitat at the same time
1.
because of the interactions that
shape the ecosystem.
unless the species require different
abiotic factors.
because of the competitive exclusion
principle.
unless the species require different
biotic factors.
2.
3.
4.
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A symbiotic relationship in which
both species benefit is
1.
2.
3.
4.
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commensalism.
mutualism.
predation.
parasitism.
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The symbiotic relationship between a flower
and the insect that feeds on its nectar is an
example of
1.
mutualism because the flower provides
the insect with food and the insect
pollinates the flower.
parasitism because the insect lives off
the nectar from the flower.
commensalism because the insect does
not harm the flower and the flower does
not benefit from the relationship.
predation because the insect feeds on
the flower.
2.
3.
4.
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A predator can increase the numbers of
certain species in its habitat by
1.
killing and eating the
competitors of other
species.
living symbiotically with
other species.
avoiding certain prey
species.
crowding out the
species it does not eat.
2.
3.
4.
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The series of predictable changes that
occurs in a community over time is called
1. population growth.
2. ecological
succession.
3. climax community.
4. climate change.
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Primary succession can begin
after
1. a forest fire.
2. a lava flow.
3. farm land is
abandoned.
4. a severe storm.
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What is one difference between primary
and secondary succession?
1.
Primary succession is slow and
secondary succession is rapid.
Secondary succession begins on soil
and primary succession begins on
newly exposed surfaces.
Primary succession modifies the
environment and secondary
succession does not.
Secondary succession begins with
lichens and primary succession
begins with trees.
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3.
4.
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Which factor(s) can influence
continual change in an ecosystem?
1. further
disturbances
2. long-term climate
changes
3. introduction of
nonnative species
4. all of the above
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Which of the following occurs during the
ecological succession of an ecosystem?
1.
An ecosystem reaches a final,
unchanging stage.
Changes occur that are caused by
organisms outside the ecosystem.
Living organisms modify their
environment a little at a time.
Parts of communities split off to form
new communities.
2.
3.
4.
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Which is a factor that could interrupt
the progress of succession?
1. colonization of surfaces by
lichens
2. different animals appearing
at each stage
3. another natural disturbance
4. long-term fluctuations in
climate
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Climate conditions in a small area that differ
significantly from the climate of the
surrounding area are called
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1. natural features.
2. microclimates.
3. biomes.
4. ecosystems.
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An example of a place with a
microclimate is
1. a mountain range
capped with ice.
2. a forested park in a
desert city.
3. an orchid growing in
a rain forest.
4. coniferous trees in a
temperate forest.
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Which of the following can influence the
climate in a small area within a biome?
1.
the average
temperature and
precipitation
the latitude of the biome
natural features such as
a lake
the greenhouse effect
2.
3.
4.
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Which biome is characterized by very low
temperatures, little precipitation, and
permafrost?
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1. desert
2. temperate forest
3. tundra
4. tropical dry forest
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Which two biomes have the
least amount of precipitation?
1.
tropical rain forest and
temperate grassland
tropical savanna and
tropical dry forest
tundra and desert
boreal forest and
temperate woodland
and shrubland
2.
3.
4.
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A biome is identified by its particular set
of abiotic factors and its
1.
average precipitation
and temperature.
characteristic ecological
community.
distance from the
equator.
specific geographical
location.
2.
3.
4.
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Which animal would be found in the biome that has cold to
moderate winters, warm summers, fertile soils, and is home
to a variety of vegetation, such as coniferous trees,
broadleaf deciduous trees, flowering shrubs, and ferns?
1.
2.
3.
4.
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whitetail deer
polar bear
iguana
moose
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Aquatic ecosystems are classified
by all of the following EXCEPT
1. depth and flow of the
water.
2. temperature of the
water.
3. organisms that live
there.
4. chemistry of the
water.
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The chemistry of aquatic
ecosystems is determined by the
1.
amount of salts, nutrients, and oxygen
dissolved in the water.
the number of other organisms present
in the water.
amount of rainfall the water receives.
biotic and abiotic factors in the water.
2.
3.
4.
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Which one of the following statements
is NOT true of freshwater wetlands?
1. Freshwater wetlands include bogs,
marshes, and swamps.
2. Water may be present near the
surface of the soil for part of the
year.
3. The water in freshwater wetlands is
always brackish.
4. Wetlands are important breeding
grounds for migratory birds.
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Ponds and lakes are
1. flowing-water
ecosystems.
2. wetlands.
3. standing-water
ecosystems.
4. estuaries.
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Which is NOT an adaptation that organisms
have for living in flowing water?
1. hooks
2. tentacles
3. streamlined
bodies
4. suckers
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Which is one way a wetland ecosystem
differs from a standing-water ecosystem?
1.
Water circulates in a standing-water
ecosystem but not in a wetland.
Wetlands are nesting areas for birds,
but standing-water ecosystems are not.
Water does not always cover a wetland
as it does a standing-water ecosystem.
Wetlands are salty, but standing-water
ecosystems are fresh.
2.
3.
4.
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The photic zone
1.
extends to the bottom of
the open ocean.
extends to a depth of
about 200 meters.
is deep, cold, and
permanently dark.
is where
chemosynthetic bacteria
are the producers.
2.
3.
4.
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Which of the following statements
is NOT true about the open ocean?
1.
The open ocean has very low levels
of nutrients.
Organisms in the deep ocean are
exposed to frigid temperatures and
total darkness.
The open ocean begins at the lowtide mark and extends to the end of
the continental shelf.
Most of the photosynthetic activity on
Earth occurs in the open ocean within
the photic zone.
2.
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4.
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Which organism lives where it is sometimes
submerged and routinely exposed to air,
heat, battering waves, and strong currents?
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1. sea star
2. tube worm
3. dolphin
4. whale
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Earth’s natural “insulating blanket” is the
biosphere. _________________________
1. True
2. False
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The greenhouse effect occurs when carbon dioxide and
other gases prevent heat energy from leaving the
atmosphere. _________________________
1. True
2. False
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Carbon dioxide, methane, and water vapor
trap light energy.
_________________________
1. True
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2. False
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The amount, intensity, and duration of
sunlight striking Earth vary with latitude.
_________________________
1. True
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2. False
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A symbiotic relationship between organisms in which one
species benefits and the other is neither helped nor harmed
is mutualism. ______________________________
1. True
2. False
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An existing community is gradually replaced
by another community in an ecological
succession. _________________________
1. True
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2. False
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Palm trees and shrubs around a small pool of water in the
middle of a barren desert is an example of an ecosystem.
_________________________
1. True
2. False
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The temperate forest biome is typically warmer
and has more rainfall than the boreal forest biome.
_________________________
1. True
2. False
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The tropical rain forest is characterized by a
wet season and a dry season.
_________________________
1. True
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2. False
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Tall, perennial grasses and herds of grazing
herbivores are inhabitants of the desert biome.
______________________________
1. True
2. False
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The depth of the water in an aquatic ecosystem
determines the amount of oxygen that living things
receive there. ____________________
1. True
2. False
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The single-cell algae that grow in lakes and
ponds are zooplankton.
______________________________
1. True
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2. False
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As a flowing-water ecosystem travels downhill from its
origin, the water flow typically changes from a turbulent
current to slow meanders. _________________________
1. True
2. False
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The zones of the marine biome are determined by
light penetration, distance from shore, and depth.
_________________________
1. True
2. False
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The coastal ocean zone and estuaries are alike in
that both are important as breeding and nesting
areas for birds. _________________________
1. True
2. False
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Participant Scores
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Participant 1
Participant 2
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Participant 3
Participant 4
Participant 5
The energy of incoming
____________________ drives Earth’s
weather and helps to determine climate.
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Weather differs from ____________________ in that
weather can change on a daily basis and is not considered
a description of year-to-year conditions of temperature and
precipitation.
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Average year-after-year conditions are to
climate as day-to-day atmospheric
conditions are to _________________.
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Atmospheric gases that trap heat inside
Earth’s atmosphere are called
____________________ gases.
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Figure 4–1
According to Figure 4–1, the north polar
zone lies above ____________________
latitude.
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As shown in Figure 4–1, the climate zone that receives the
most direct sunlight throughout the year lies between
____________________ and ____________________
latitudes.
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Organisms within an ecosystem are
____________________ factors in that
ecosystem.
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Over time, some plants growing in an area are crowded out
by other plants. The new plants use up water and nutrients
needed by the previous plants. The disappearance of the
first plants is due to ______________________________.
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A small city park that is sunnier and windier
than the climate of the surrounding areas
has its own _________________________.
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Mild, moist air from the Pacific Ocean and
giant redwood trees characterize the
______________________________.
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An aquatic environment’s water
____________________ refers to the amount of
dissolved salts, nutrients, and oxygen in the water.
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The abiotic factor used to determine the climate of
an area that has the least effect on aquatic
ecosystems is ____________________.
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A swamp is different from a lake as a
freshwater ecosystem because a swamp is
a ____________________ ecosystem.
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Photosynthesis is limited to the well-lit upper
layer of the ocean, which scientists refer to
as the ____________________ zone.
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Coral reefs cannot survive more than 40 meters below the
ocean surface because of their
________________________ relationship with algae.
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List five factors that contribute
to global climate patterns.
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How are atmospheric gases like
the glass in a greenhouse?
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What are greenhouse gases?
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Figure 4–1
Using Figure 4–1, describe a climate
you might find at 10°N latitude.
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Using Figure 4–1, explain why average
temperatures decrease with increasing
distance from the equator.
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Explain why the food that a bullfrog
eats is considered a part of its niche.
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List three biotic and three abiotic factors that
determine the survival of a rabbit in a
temperate forest.
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3
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How is mutualism similar to and
different from commensalism?
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What is an ecological resource?
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Explain why plants do not participate in the
succession of a whale-fall community as
they do in land-ecosystem succession.
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Describe an important role that pioneer
species play in primary succession.
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Deserts vary greatly depending on elevation
and latitude. What characteristic do all
deserts share?
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What are the three main factors
that govern aquatic ecosystems?
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3
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Why are hooks and suckers not typically
found in organisms inhabiting standingwater ecosystems?
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What criteria are used for
determining ocean zones?
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3
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Explain how ocean currents originate
and affect Earth’s climates.
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3
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Describe the greenhouse effect and explain
how it maintains Earth’s temperature range.
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Predict how the tropical rain forest and desert biomes
would change if Earth were 30 degrees Celsius cooler than
it is today. What phenomenon keeps this from happening?
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Describe Earth’s main climate zones and
explain how latitude affects these climate
zones.
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Name and define the three main classes of
symbiotic relationships. Give examples of
each.
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Describe the stages of primary succession
in land environments, including lichens,
mosses, grasses, shrubs, and trees.
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What is a microclimate? Give an
example
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Explain why there are no tall trees in the tundra
biome. What are some of the biotic and abiotic
phenomena that exist in the tundra?
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Why does a flowing-water ecosystem often support little
plant life at its source? Describe how the ecosystem
changes to support organisms as it flows
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List the six main zones of the marine biome.
Explain how these zones are differentiated.
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