ICRP and Radiological Protection of Non

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Transcript ICRP and Radiological Protection of Non

ICRP AND
RADIOLOGICAL PROTECTION
OF NON-HUMAN SPECIES
Lars-Erik Holm
Vice-Chairman of ICRP
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ICRP AND THE ENVIRONMENT
ICRP has decided to
develop a framework
for assessing the
radiological impact on
non-human species.
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ICRP AND THE ENVIRONMENT
“The Commission concerns itself with
mankind’s environment only with regard to
the transfer of radionuclides through the
environment, since this directly affects the
radiological protection of man.”
(ICRP 60, 1991)
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ICRP AND THE ENVIRONMENT
“The Commission believes that the
standards of environmental control
needed to protect man to the degree
currently thought desirable will ensure
that other species are not put at risk.”
(ICRP 60, 1991)
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UNDERLYING ASSUMPTIONS
• The environment is protected through the
protection of mankind.
• Reproductive capacity is the relevant
endpoint.
• The appropriate level of protection is to
avoid endangering the existence of species,
or creating ecological imbalance.
• ICRP has NOT explicitly stated that the
environment should be protected.
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ENVIRONMENTAL MILESTONES
1962 “Silent Spring” by Rachel Carson.
1968 UN General Assembly decides to convene
an international conference to protect
and improve the human environment.
1972 UN Conference on the Human Environment
in Stockholm.
UN creates UNEP.
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ENVIRONMENTAL MILESTONES
1980 World Conservation Strategy (UNEP, IUCN)
1987 World Commission on Environment and
Development: “Our Common Future”
- The Brundtland Report defines the concept
of SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT and
emphasizes the need to preserve
BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY.
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ENVIRONMENTAL MILESTONES
1992 UN Conference on Environment and
Development in Rio de Janeiro lays down
general principles for environmental
protection, e.g.
- the Rio Declaration
- the Convention on Biological Diversity
- the Agenda 21 Programme of Action.
Biological diversity: “the variability among
living organisms within within species,
between species, and of ecosystems.”
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ENVIRONMENTAL MILESTONES
The Rio Declaration: protection of the
environment shall be an integral part of the
development process and development shall
be sustainable.
The Convention on Biological Diversity:
important that all organisms contribute to the
ecosystem.
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PROTECTION OF THE
ENVIRONMENT
Protecting living organisms in terms of
‘nature conservation’:
• to conserve particular species or habitats
• to maintain the diversity of habitats, of
species, and of the genetic variability
within species
• to protect habitats and designated areas.
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PROTECTION OF THE
ENVIRONMENT
Environmental management includes
•
Environmental exploitation (populations)
•
Conservation and protection of the natural
environment (individuals, populations,
habitats, ecosystems)
•
Pollution control (environmental quality
standards)
(Pentreath 2002)
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PROTECTION OF THE
ENVIRONMENT
There is no single ethic for protection of the
environment.
The basis can be traced back to
• scientific evidence
• social and cultural concerns (based on
religious or philosophical tenets and beliefs)
• the need to comply with international and
national legislation.
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SPECTRUM OF ETHICS
Anthropocentric: Humans are the main thing of
moral standing. The environment is of concern
only as it affects humans.
Biocentric: Moral standing is extended to individual
members of other species, and obligations
pertaining to such individuals arise as a
consequence.
Ecocentric: Moral standing can be extended to
virtually everything in the environment. The focus
lies more with the entirety and diversity of the
ecosystem rather than the moral significance of
each and every individual component of it.
(IAEA, 2002)
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OPERATIONAL STRATEGIES FOR
SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
• The pollution prevention principle
• The precautionary principle
• The substitution principle
• The polluter-pays principle
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PERCEIVED PROBLEMS
WITH ICRP’s STATEMENTS
• No explicit scientific evidence quoted
• What about habitats where humans are
absent?
• What if humans have been removed for their
own safety?
• How do the statements meet the needs of
regulators, in terms of direct evidence of
environmental protection?
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INTERNATIONAL GUIDANCE
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
International conventions
UNSCEAR
ICRP
IAEA
European Community
IUR
OECD/NEA
National initiatives
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INTERNATIONAL GUIDANCE
The Joint Convention on the Management of
Spent Nuclear Fuel and Radioactive Waste:
• Protection of individuals, society and the
environment.
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THE OSPAR CONVENTION
Oslo-Paris Convention for the Protection of the
Marine Environment of the North-East Atlantic
• Concentrations of artificial radionuclides in
the marine environment should be reduced
towards zero.
• Ultimate aim: near background values for
naturally occurring radioactive substances,
and close to zero for artificial radioactive
substances.
(Sintra 1998)
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APPROACHES TO ADDRESS
ICRP’s CURRENT POSITION
• Arguments that because man is protected, the
environment is protected (axiomatic).
• Calculations to demonstrate that, if man
would receive <1mSv a-1, other organisms
would not be harmed at the population level
(human food chain).
• Environmental concentrations derived in a
tiered approach, based on environmental dose
rates considered safe (generic population
protection standards).
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APPROACHES TO ADDRESS
ICRP’s CURRENT POSITION
• Target dose rates developed for biota based
on an eco-toxicological approach applying
safety factors (‘no-effects standards’).
• Systematic frameworks for assessing
environmental impact of radiation in
specific geographic areas.
• A hierarchical system with ‘derived
consideration levels’(Discrete Reference
Fauna & Flora).
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RADIOLOGICAL PROTECTION OF
THE ENVIRONMENT
INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCES
•
STOCKHOLM 1996
•
OTTAWA 1999
•
DARWIN 2002
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International Conference on the
PROTECTION OF THE
ENVIRONMENT FROM THE EFFECTS
OF IONIZING RADIATION
Organized by the IAEA
In co-operation with
UNSCEAR, the EC and the IUR
Hosted by the Government of Sweden through
the Swedish Radiation Protection Authority
Stockholm, Sweden
6-10 October 2003
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Mailing address & information under: http://www.iaea.org/worldatom/Meetings/2003
WHY AN ICRP SYSTEM FOR THE
ENVIRONMENT?
• The environment needs protection from
harmful effects of radiation.
• There is a need to demonstrate that the
environment is adequately protected.
• There are no explicit sets of criteria, standards
etc. with international authority or
endorsement.
• Several countries are already implementing
environmental radiation standards.
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RADIOLOGICAL PROTECTION
OF THE ENVIRONMENT
• The shift from a purely anthropocentric view
to include other aspects is reflected in
conventions that emphasize sustainability
and biological diversity.
• The need and goals for protection of the
environment have been defined by society.
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PROTECTION OF INDIVIDUALS
OR POPULATIONS?
• The question no longer so important,
because of existing legal requirements.
• Many animals, plants, areas, and habitats are
afforded legal protection from ‘harm’ from all
manner of activities, including radiation.
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PROTECTION OF INDIVIDUALS
OR POPULATIONS?
In the UK, many common species are protected
at the individual level:
• 30 mammals;
• 500 birds and (>200 species) their eggs;
• 40 invertebrates; and
• 130 plants.
This reflects changes in attitudes and values.
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RADIOLOGICAL PROTECTION OF
THE ENVIRONMENT
• Many international agreements call for
protection against pollution, incl. radiation.
• There are no agreed criteria that address
radiological protection of the environment.
• This lack makes it difficult to determine or
demonstrate whether or not the environment
is adequately protected from potential
impacts of radiation.
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RADIATION AND THE
ENVIRONMENT
• The human habitat has been afforded
protection through the application of
ICRP’s current system of protection.
HOW CAN WE DEMONSTRATE THAT THE
ENVIRONMENT IS ADEQUATELY PROTECTED?
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ICRP AND THE ENVIRONMENT
ICRP’s decision has not been driven by any
particular concern over environmental
radiation hazards, but by the need to fill a
conceptual gap in the system of radiological
protection.
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ICRP AND THE ENVIRONMENT
ICRP intends to
• recommend a practical framework that
can be used to give advice and guidance,
thereby
• helping regulators and operators
demonstrate compliance with
environmental legislation.
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ICRP’s SYSTEM OF PROTECTION
The system is achieved in practice by the use
of:
• Reference anatomical and physiological
models of humans to derive practical
information on the anticipated ‘dose per
unit intake’ of radionuclides.
•
Scientific studies to estimate risks
associated with the external and internal
exposure to radionuclides.
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REFERENCE MAN
• Dose calculations require reference values to
describe anatomical/physiological
characteristics of an exposed individual.
• Such values for tissues/organs define a
reference individual.
• A reference individual is not intended to
describe an ‘average’ individual.
• The purpose is to create a standard and a
point of reference for the procedure of dose
estimation.
• The concept of a Reference Man is one of the
cornerstones in radiological protection.
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ICRP AND THE ENVIRONMENT
ICRP is developing
• a reference set of dosimetric models;
• a reference set of environmental geometries
that are
• applied to Reference Animals and Plants.
This will allow an assessment of the likely
consequences for individuals, the population,
or of the local environment.
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REFERENCE ANIMALS AND
PLANTS
For each reference organism obtain data on:
• basic life-cycle biology
• pathways of radiation exposure expressed
in terms of dose-per-unit-exposure
• exposure geometries and dose model(s) to
estimate doses received
• basic knowledge of radiation effects and a
few effect end points on individuals.
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POINTS OF REFERENCE TO DESCRIBE
RELEVANCE OF RADIATION DOSES IN
NON-HUMAN ORGANISMS
• Dose rates required to observe:
- early mortality
- morbidity
- reduced reproductive success
- chromosomal damage
• Typical background dose rate for that type of
animal or plant.
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RADIATION EFFECTS
Ecosystem
Community
Natural
selection
Population
Individuals
Tissues
Cells
Molecular
mechanisms
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CRITERIA FOR REFERENCE
ANIMALS AND PLANTS
• Are they typical of an ecosystem?
• Are they likely to be exposed to radiation?
• What stage(s) in their life cycle are of
relevance for the dose or dose rate?
• Can their exposure to radiation be modelled
and be related to effects in the individual
organism?
• What radiobiological information is available?
• Are they amenable to future research?
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TAXONOMIC LEVEL OF A
REFERENCE ORGANISM
CATEGORY
ANIMAL
Phylum
Chordatae
Class
Mammaliae
Order
Carnivorae
Family
Felidae
Species
Felis domesticus
Variety
Siamese, Persian blue
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ICRP’s REFERENCE ANIMALS
AND PLANTS
Rat
Duck
Frog
Freshwater fish
Marine flat fish
Bee
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Earthworm
Marine snail
Crab
Grass
Brown seaweed
Pine tree
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ICRP’s REFERENCE ANIMALS AND
PLANTS
Organism
Terrestrial
Freshwater
Rodent
X
Duck
X
X
Frog
X
X
Freshwater fish
X
Marine flat fish
Marine
X
X
Bee
X
Marine snail
X
Crab
Earthworm
X
Pine Tree
X
Grass
X
Brown seaweed
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X
X
X
X
X
X
X
x
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DERIVED CONSIDERATION LEVELS
RAISED CONCERN
> Several times the
natural background
Natural background for
a reference organism
< Natural background
LITTLE CONCERN
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A COMMON APPROACH
Practices
Environmental radionuclide concentration(s)
Reference Man
Dose limits,
Dose constraints
Reference Animals and
Plants
Derived Consideration
Levels
Decision-Making regarding public health and environment
for the same environmental situation
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ICRP’S CURRENT WORK WITH
REFERENCE ANIMALS AND
PLANTS (RAP)
• Select, describe and define ICRP’s RAPs.
• Define end-points for assessing radiation
effects in RAPs.
• Develop a reference set of dose models for
RAPs.
• Compile sets of Derived Consideration Levels
for RAPs.
• Develop a set of quantities and units that
could be suggested for use for RAPs.
A report is expected in 2005.
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WHAT MIGHT ALL THIS HELP TO
ACHIEVE?
• A clear set of objectives and principles.
• Basic knowledge of radiation effects.
• An agreed set of quantities and units.
• A means of demonstrating compliance.
• A reference set of dose models for a number
of Reference Animals and Plants.
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PROTECTION OF THE
ENVIRONMENT
• A framework for radiological protection of
the environment must be practical and
simple.
• In order to transparently demonstrate the
derivation of judgements and decisions,
the use of Reference Animals and Plants
would be helpful.
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ICRP COMMITTEE 5
CHAIR: R JAN PENTREATH, UK
Protection of the environment
Development and use of Reference Animals
and Plants
Ensure compatibility of approach with:
- human radiological protection and
- with other forms of environmental
protection
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