PowerPoint - New Mexico FFA

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ER B3–6
Examining Reforestation
Practices
Reminder: student learning activities are at the end of this
power point.
Next Generation Science/Common Core Standards Addressed!
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HS‐LS2‐6. Evaluate the claims, evidence, and reasoning that the complex
interactions in ecosystems maintain relatively consistent numbers and types of
organisms in stable conditions, but changing conditions may result in a new
ecosystem. [Clarification Statement: Examples of changes in ecosystem conditions
could include modest biological or physical changes, such as moderate hunting or
a seasonal fHS‐LS2‐7.lood; and extreme changes, such as volcanic eruption or
sea level rise.]
HS‐LS2‐7. Evaluate the evidence for the role of group behavior on individual and
species’ chances to survive and reproduce. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is
on: (1) distinguishing between group and individual behavior, (2) identifying
evidence supporting the outcomes
of group behavior, and (3) developing logical and reasonable arguments based on
evidence. Examples of group behaviors could include flocking, schooling, herding,
and cooperative behaviors such as hunting, migrating, and swarming.
RST.11‐12.7Integrate and evaluate multiple sources of information presented in
diverse formats and media (e.g., quantitative data, video, multimedia) in order to
address a question or solve a problem. (HS‐LS2‐6),(HS‐LS2‐7),(HS‐LS2‐8)
Agriculture, Food, and Natural
Resource Standards Addressed
· NRS.01.05.03.a. Compare and contrast techniques
associated with sustainable forestry (e.g., timber
stand improvement, diversity improvement,
reforestation, etc.).
Bell Work / Student Learning
Objectives.
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1. Identify methods of reforestation.
2. Identify sources of tree seedlings.
3. Explain tree planting guidelines.
4. Explain how to care for and plant
a seedling.
Terms.
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Cuttings
Direct seeding
Heel-in
Planting bar (dibble)
Wild seedlings
Identify Methods of Reforestation
· The majority of forest owners rely on
natural regeneration to restore most
stands after logging.
· However, in some instances human
intervention is necessary.
· In these cases, foresters artificially reforest
an area.
· Some methods by which this
accomplished are:
Wild Seedlings
· Wild seedlings are those growing in
the woods in a natural state.
· For all practical purposes, digging
up and transplanting of such
seedlings for reforestation purposes
should be avoided.
· Such practice is not economical and
inefficient.
Direct Seeding
· Sowing repellent-coated
seeds on an area where
trees are desired is
known as direct seeding.
· This method can be
effectively and
successfully employed
under proper conditions.
Direct Seeding
· Large areas can be
directly seeded by hand,
airplane, cyclone seeder,
or grain drill.
· Also, the cost of
establishing a stand by
this method is usually
less than the cost of
planting tree seedlings.
Some factors that affect the
success of direct seeding are:
· 1. Vegetative cover - Heavy
vegetative cover can prevent seed
from reaching the soil and interferes
with germination.
· A prescribed burn can be used prior
to seeding to remove such cover in
the desired area.
Some factors that affect the
success of direct seeding are:
· 2. Soil moisture - Soil moisture
affects germination of seed and
growth of seedlings.
· An insufficient amount of moisture
following direct seeding will result in
a low germination rate and/or a high
mortality rate of seedlings.
Some factors that affect the
success of direct seeding are:
· 3. Birds and rodents - Birds and
rodents consume seed for food.
· Therefore, seed should be treated
with a bird and rodent repellent
before being broadcasted.
Cuttings
· Some species of trees can be
reproduced from cuttings.
· Cuttings are pieces of branches,
usually 8 to 12 inches in length, cut
from a tree.
· Examples of species that can
reproduce via this method are willow,
cottonwood, and several conifers.
Nursery Seedlings
· The planting of nurserygrown seedlings will
increase the probability
of establishing a good
stand.
· Nursery seedlings are
usually planted bare
rooted because of the
ease of transporting and
handling seedlings with
this method.
Containerized Seedlings
· Using containerized
seedlings for reforestation is
becoming increasingly
accepted.
· In this method, seeds are
germinated in small pots of
soil or other growing
medium.
· After 8 to 32 weeks, the
seedlings are planted
without disturbing their roots.
Advantages of this method are:
· Improved rates of survival and
growth of seedlings.
· Difficult species are more readily
produced.
· The planting season can be
extended.
Disadvantages of this method are:
· Cost. Containerized seedlings often
cost at least twice as much as bare
root stock.
· Seedlings are bulky, making them
more difficult to handle and
transport.
· Requires more site preparation than
direct seeding
Identify Sources of Tree Seedlings
· II. Forest land owners interested in
securing seedlings for reforestation
or windbreaks should request an
application from the state
department of natural resources.
· In New Mexico NRCS offices have
access to low cost NM forestry
grown trees.
Identify Sources of Tree Seedlings
· Seedlings for ornamental purpose
are not usually sold by state
agencies. Usually sold for wind
breaks, shelter belts etc.
· In some instances, landowners may
qualify for a small number of free
seedlings from the state.
· Additional seedlings may be
purchased if desired.
Explain Tree Planting Guidelines
· III. A number of key factors should
be considered when planning to
reforest an area.
· They are:
Tree Planting Guidelines
· A. Estimating needs - It is important to order
the proper species and number of seedlings
required for the area to be reforested.
· It is suggested that landowners consult the
state forestry agency or extension forester
for advice on selecting the best species for
the site.
· In NM with limited water we have to keep
water shed/usage in mind when planting
trees.
Tree Planting Guidelines
· B. Areas in need of planting - The
area that will be planted during the
reforestation process should be
considered in selecting the species
to be planted.
Some possible locations are:
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1. Cleared or abandoned farmlands
2. Non restocking forest land
3. Openings in forest stands
4. Watershed protection areas
5. Windbreaks
How to Properly Plant a Seedling
· IV. There are several steps to follow
to properly plant a tree seedling.
How to Properly Plant a Seedling
· Before planting, seedlings may be
stacked in layers 8 to 10 deep for
temporary storage without any
adverse effects.
· It is important however to plant the
seedlings as soon as possible after
receiving them from the nursery.
Heel-in Seedlings
· To heel-in seedlings means to
store the young trees prior to
planting by placing them in a
trench and covering their roots
with soil.
· In this process, seedlings are
placed in a V-shaped heel-in
trench and allowed to lean
parallel to one side of the trench.
· The roots must be fully extended
to the bottom of the trench.
Heel-in Seedlings
· A seedling with curled roots will be
difficult to plant correctly later.
· After placing the seedling in the trench,
fill it three-fourths full with soil.
· The soil is then packed around the roots
and then the rest of the trench is filled
with soil.
· The soil is then covered with leaves to
conserve soil moisture.
How to Properly Plant a Seedling
· B. The site in which the seedlings
will be planted must be prepared by
removing any excess vegetative
cover.
· This may be accomplished through
prescribed burning, bulldozers,
brush cutters, or plows.
How to Properly Plant a Seedling
· C. Spacing of trees depends on the
owner’s objective.
· In pine trees, a spacing of 6 x 8 feet
or 8 x 8 feet favors maximum cubic
foot volume growth.
· A spacing of 12 feet between rows
is sometimes used to allow the
passage of vehicles and equipment.
How to Properly Plant a Seedling
· Wide spacing, such as 10 x 10 feet
or 12 x 12 feet, often allows trees to
grow to large diameters in a
relatively short time.
How to Properly Plant a Seedling
· D. There are a variety of procedures
that can be used to plant seedlings.
· As a rule, only about 75 to 80
percent of all properly planted
seedlings will survive.
Some of the procedures are:
· 1. Hand planting - The planting bar
(dibble) is a metal tool used to make a
hole in the soil and is one of the best
tools for planting seedlings by hand.
· The planting bar has four parts: handle,
shaft, blade, and foot step.
· The wedge-shaped steel blade is usually 8
to 10 inches long and about 3 inches wide,
tapering to a sharp edge at the base.
Some of the procedures are:
· 2. Machine planting - As
expected, machine planting
is much faster than hand
planting.
· A two-person crew can set
out 7,000 to 10,000
seedlings a day on suitable
sites.
Review / Summary
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1. Identify methods of reforestation.
2. Identify sources of tree seedlings.
3. Explain tree planting guidelines.
4. Explain how to care for and plant
a seedling.
The End!
Student Learning Activities
· Sample tests are available in the
Lesson Plan tab.
Planting Trees From Twigs
· Here is a neat activity that you can do
with your students, teaching them about
how to plant trees.
What you’ll need to plant a tree:
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tree branch
plastic bottle
knife
hammer
time
Step 1
Take your tree branch and pull off all the leaves. Then chop off all the
buds and smaller branches, using a knife and hammer. Take the knife
and place it on the branch you want to chop off, make sure it’s straight.
Then, carefully hit the knife with the hammer so that the branch gets
cut off.
Step 2
Now chop the branch into 8-15 inch pieces. Make sure these pieces
can fit in your plastic bottle.
Step 3
Place the branches in the plastic bottle filled with about 2 inches of
water. Now close the cap, and you’re done! Make sure to screw the
cap off and on once in a while to let in new air.
Step 4
After about 2 weeks, you may notice fluffy texture or little beads
appearing on the branch. That means it’s time to place the branch in soil
and water it like you would water any plant.
Jeopardy
Examining Reforestation Practices
Methods of
reforestation
Tree planting
guidelines
How to
properly plant
a seedling
Containerized
Seedling
Direct
Seedling
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50
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Question 1-10
· What are Wild Seedlings?
Answer 1-10
· Wild Seedlings are those growing in
the woods in a natural state.
Question 1-20
· What is Direct Seeding?
Answer 1-20
· Sowing repellent-coated seed on an
area where trees are desired is know
as direct seeding.
Question 1-30
· How can large areas be directly
seeded?
Answer 1-30
· Large areas can be directly seeded
by hand, airplane, cyclone seeder, or
grain drill.
Question 1-40
· What are Nursery Seedlings?
Answer 1-40
· The planting of nursery-grown
seedlings will increase the provability
of establishing a good stand .
Question 1-50
· What are Containerized Seedlings?
Answer 1-50
· Containerized seedlings are seeds
tat are germinated in small pots of
soil or other growing medium. After 8
to 32 week, the seedling are planted
without disturbing their roots.
Question 2-10
· Why do you need to estimate your
needs when planting trees?
Answer 2-10
· Estimating needs - It is important to
order the proper species and number
of seedlings required for the area to
be reforested.
Question 2-20
· Who should landowners contact to help
with selecting the best species for the
site?
Answer 2-20
· It is suggested that landowners
consult the state forestry agency or
extension forester for advice on
selecting the best species for the site.
Question 2-30
· What is something that we in New
Mexico have to keep in mind when
planting trees?
Answer 2-30
· I New Mexico with limited water we
have to keep water shed/usage in
mind when planting trees.
Question 2-40
· What should you consider when
selecting the species to be planted?
Answer 2-40
Areas in need of planting- The area
that will be planted during the
reforestation process should be
considered in selecting the species to
be planted.
Question 2-50
· Witch plot would have more seedlings
planted per acre based on spacing
used?
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6 feet X 8 feet
6 feet X 10 feet
8 feet X 8 feet
8 feet X 10 feet
10 feet X 10 feet
Answer 2-50
Question 3-10
· When should the seedlings be planted?
Answer 3-10
· It is important to plant the seedlings
as soon as possible after receiving
them from the nursery.
Question 3-20
· What is the purpose of Heel-in
Seedlings?
Answer 3-20
· To heel-in seedlings means to store
the young trees prior to planting by
placing them in a trench and covering
their roots with soil.
Question 3-30
· How must the site that the seedlings will
be planted in be prepared?
Answer 3-30
· The site in which the seedlings will be
planted must be prepared by
removing any excess vegetative
cover.
Question 3-40
· What are some ways the excess
vegetative cover may be removed?
Answer 3-40
· This may be accomplished through
prescribed burning, bulldozers, brush
cutters, or plows.
Question 3-50
· As a rule how many properly planted
seedlings will survive?
Answer 3-50
· As a rule, only about 75 to 80 percent
of all properly planted seedlings will
survive?
Question 4-10
· In the containerized seedling method
what happens after 8 to 32 weeks?
Answer 4-10
· After 8 to 32 weeks, the seedlings
are planted without disturbing their
roots.
Question 4-20
· Name two advantages of the
containerized seedling method.
Answer 4-20
· Advantages of this method are:
1. Improved rates of survival and growth
of seedlings.
2. Difficult species are more readily
produced.
3. The planting season can be
extended.
Question 4-30
· How much do containerized seedlings
often cost?
Answer 4-30
· Containerized seedlings often cost at
least twice as much as bare root
stock.
Question 4-40
· Other then cost what are the major
disadvantages of the containerized
seedlings method?
Answer 4-40
· Disadvantages of this method are:
· Seedlings are bulky, making them more
difficult to handle and transport.
· Requires more site preparation then
direct seeding.
Question 4-50
· Describe Containerized Seedlings.
Answer 4-50
· Containerized seedlings is when
seeds are germinated in small pots of
soil or other growing medium.
Question 5-10
· When is direct seeding most effective?
Answer 5-10
· This method can be effectively and
successfully employed under proper
conditions.
Question 5-20
· How is vegetative cover a factor that
can affect the success of direct
seeding?
Answer 5-20
· Vegetative cover- Heavy vegetation
cover can prevent seed from
reaching the soil and interferes with
germination.
Question 5-30
· How is soil moisture a factor that can
affect the success of direct seeding?
Answer 5-30
· Soil moisture – soil moisture
affects germination of seed and
growth of seedlings.
· An insufficient amount of
moisture following direct seeding
with result in a low germination
rate and/or a high mortality rate
of seedlings.
Question 5-40
· How is birds and rodent a factor that
can affect the success of direct
seeding?
Answer 5-40
· Birds and rodents – Birds and
rodents consume seed for food.
· Therefore, seed should be treated with
a bird and rodent repellent before being
broadcasted.
Question 5-50
· Describe Direct Seeding.
Answer 5-50
· Sowing repellent-coated seeds on an
area where trees are desired is know
as direct seeding.