Biome - Issaquah Connect

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Transcript Biome - Issaquah Connect

Semester 2 Final Review Part 2
Carbohydrates, Photosynthesis &
Respiration and Ecology
Biomes &
Biodiversity
Biomes
Earth is covered by many types of ecosystems.
Ecologists group these ecosystems into larger
areas known as biomes.
Biome: a large region characterized by a specific
type of climate and certain types of plant and
animal communities.
Thus biomes are made up of smaller
ecosystems.
Biomes
Biomes are described by their vegetation
because the plants are the most noticeable
characteristics of that region.
Organisms that depend on those plants live
where the plants are and so on.
The term biodiversity, short for “biological diversity,”
usually refers to the number of different species in a
given area.
Certain areas of the planet, such as tropical rain forests,
contain an extraordinary variety of species, and thus have
a high biodiversity. Other areas, like deserts have
relatively little life, and thus low biodiversity.
Ecology
The study of the interactions
of living organisms with one
another and their physical
environment.
Levels of Organization in Biology
Atom
Organism
Molecule
Population
Cell
Tissue
Community
Organ
System
Ecosystem
Biosphere
ECOLOGY
Ecosystem

A community
(many different
species) that live
together in a
habitat

and the habitat
Ecosystem

The physical boundaries are
not always obvious (no
location is ever totally
isolated from other places)
 Organisms can
participate in two
ecosystems at the same
time.


Ex. Canada Geese have a
breeding range that
stretches from Alaska to
northern Florida.
This range includes
everything from tundra to
temperate forests.
Biotic vs Abiotic:

Biotic-All the LIVING components of an ecosystem


The community of organisms
Abiotic factors-All the non-living components of an
ecosystem



Affect balance of food web
Determines who can live in a specific habitat
Examples:
 Amount of rain
 Temperature
 Amount of nutrients in soil
 Pollutants
HABITAT:

the place where a
particular population
lives
Mistletoe growing
into a mangrove tree
COMMUNITY
Bee pollinating flower
Bat about to eat frog

All the interacting organisms
(many different species)
living in an area.

Community Interactions




Whale with
barnacles on skin
Predation : + / Parasitism: +/ Commensalism: + / 0
Mutualism: + / +
POPULATION:

All the members of one species that live in one place
at one time.
The Flow of Energy in an Ecosystem
Food Chain: Describes feeding relationships and the path
of energy through food consumption
The Flow of Energy in an Ecosystem

All ENERGY flows into ecosystem from the
SUN (except in thermal vents in the ocean).


Photosynthesis makes it possible to capture light
energy from sun and transform it into chemical
energy of organic molecules (food).
All organisms are chemical machines driven by
energy captured in photosynthesis.
How does a food chain work?
It is based on which organism is eaten by which other
organism
The arrow always points to the animal doing the eating
In the direction of the flow of energy

TROPHIC LEVELS

Determined by the organism’s source of
energy
1. Autotrophs
2. Heterotrophs
3. Saprotrophs
1. AUTOTROPHS:


Capture energy from the sun
(photosynthetic) or inorganic molecules =
chemicals (chemosynthetic) and converts it
into usable energy.
Also known as PRODUCERS

produces food (make energy storing molecules),
 Ex. Plants, algae and some kinds of bacteria
2.

HETEROTROPHScannot capture energy from the sun and
must eat autotrophs to get energy.




Herbivores: Plant eaters
Carnivores: Eat animals
Omnivores: Eat plants and animals
Scavengers: Eat dead organisms
2.

HETERTROPHSCONSUMER
 obtains the energy to build their molecules
by consuming plants or other organisms
PRIMARY (1st Order) CONSUMER
(herbivores)
eats producer
Ex. Cows,
horses,
caterpillars
and ducks
Secondary (2nd Order) CONSUMER
(carnivores)

eats herbivores
Carnivore
Ex. Wolf,
ferret, and
leopard
SECONDARY (2nd ORDER)
CONSUMER

eats 1st order
 Carnivore
Ex. Tigers,
wolves and
snakes
 Omnivore
 Ex. Bears,
humans

TERTIARY (3rd ORDER)
CONSUMER
eats second
order (other
carnivores)
Ex. Hawk
QUATERNARY (4th
ORDER) CONSUMER

this is very rare…
 Not
enough energy at the level before to
support these higher levels

Ex. Orca