Ecosystems

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Transcript Ecosystems

1. How Biotic & Abiotic
Factors influence the
Biosphere/Ecosystem?
2. What impact Biotic &
Abiotic factors have on
biodiversity?
Ecology – Unit 2
KEY CONCEPT (Day 1)
Every ecosystem includes both living and
nonliving factors.
Key Voc – use to make unit 2 flash cards
1. Biotic & Abiotic factors
9. Biosphere
2. Biodiversity
10. Keystones Species
3. Population
11.
4. Organism
5. Biome
6. Community
7. Niche
8. Ecosystem
• Ecology - the branch of biology that deals with the interactions
between organisms and their environment
• Biodiversity –
• Population - includes all the members of a species in a given area
ex. all of the white tail deer in the Adirondacks is a population
• Organism – a living thing
• Biome – the biosphere is organized into smaller parts called biome
• Community - all of the populations in a given area. E.g. deers,
dogs
• Niche • Ecosystem – the living (biotic) community and the nonliving
(abiotic) physical environment functioning together is an ecosystem
• Biosphere - is the portion of the earth in which LIFE exists s made
up of many complex ecosystems. * ALL OF THE ECOSYSTEMS
COMBINED MAKE UP THE BIOSPHERE!
• Level of organization is used to show how organisms
interact with each other & their environment
Abiotic vs. Biotic Factors
• Abiotic factors = non-living components that
affect living organisms
– Ex. Temperature,
– sunlight, rocks
• Biotic Factors = all living things or their materials
that directly or indirectly affect organisms in its
environment (includes interactions)
– Ex. Plants, animals,
– fungi, bacteria
Affect of Biotic and Abiotic Factors
• Interactions with biotic and abiotic factors
can have an effect on several different
levels: cellular, organismal, population,
ecosystem
• Cellular Level: ex. temperature, water
availability can affect a cell’s function.
• Organismal level: ex. interactions (such
as mutualism, predation) as well as abiotic
factors (water, temperature)
Changing one factor in an ecosystem can
affect many other factors.
• Population, Ecosystem, Community
Level:
– ex. Water availability, availability of nesting
materials and sites, species diversity, can all
contribute to the stability of these groups.
•Biodiversity is the assortment, differences or
variety, of living things in an ecosystem.
•Rain forests have more biodiversity than
other locations in the world, but are threatened
by human activities.
Biomes
• Ecosystem types that are classified
according to the dominant vegetation
• Locations are closely tied to abiotic factors
such as temperature and rainfall
• Ex. Desert, tropical rain forest, tundra
Geological & Meteorological
Events
• Impact ecosystem distribution
• Biogeographical studies
– Studies that determine the distribution of
species
• Ex. Continental drift
– Marsupials fill ecological roles in Australia
similar to those filled by placental mammals on
other continent
Species-specific events
• Keystone species =
have a strong
influence on other
species in the
ecosystem
• Loss of keystone
species can result in
drastic changes to or
the collapse of the
ecosystem.
Human Activities
• Occurs on a local,
regional, and global
scale
• Speeds up changes to
ecosystems locally
and globally
• Ex. Urbanization,
global climate
change, introduced
species