Chapter 7d Human Nutrition PowerPoint

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Transcript Chapter 7d Human Nutrition PowerPoint

Chapter 15
Human Nutrition
Nutrition
• All the activities by which an
organism obtains and uses
food for growth and repair of
cells
Nutrients
• The substances in food that an
organism needs and uses for its
life functions
Function of Nutrients
1. They act as a fuel to provide energy
for the life activities of cells
2. They supply chemicals needed for
growth and repair of cells
3. They regulate the metabolic
processes needed for the proper
functioning of the cell
Nutritional requirements
vary with an individuals:
age
sex
activities
Six Types of Nutrients
1. Carbohydrates
2. Proteins
3. Lipids
4. Vitamins
5. Minerals
6. Water
Carbohydrates
• Main source of energy for
body functions
Ex: bread, pasta, and fruits
• There are 4 calories in each
gram of carbohydrate.
Lipids
• Supply of energy
• Part of cell membrane
• Storage form of excess food in
the body
Ex: butter, bacon, and nuts
Proteins
• Used for growth and repair of
body tissue
Ex: meat, milk , eggs, and fish
Water
• Solvent in which chemical
reactions take place
• Aids in the transport of
materials in the body
Minerals
• Make up the body structures
Ex: calcium- make up bone and
teeth
iron- part of hemoglobin
(red blood cells)
Vitamins
• Needed for normal
metabolism
Ex: vegetables, fruits, and
meats
• Carbohydrates, proteins, and
lipids need to be digested by
the body in order to be
absorbed into the blood
• Vitamins, minerals, and water
do not need to be digested and
are easily absorbed into the
blood
calorie vs.Calorie
• calorie:unit used for measuring amounts of
heat energy. 1calorie is defined as the
amount of heat that will raise the
temperature in 1gram of water 1 degree C.
• Calories (upper)are used to measure the
amount in food.
• SO 1 Calorie=1000 calories
Body Mass Index calculation
http://www.fatburn.com/default_g.asp?ad_code=calorie
Recommended Daily Calories For Men
Middle Age Group With Moderate Activity :
5'4 119-155 2,548
5'5 133-160 2,596
5'6 127-164 2,644
6'0 151-193 2,932
6'1 155-198 2,980
6'2 159-203 3,028
5'7
5'8
5'9
5'10
6'3
6'4
6'5
6'6
131-169
135-174
139-179
143-184
2,692
2,740
2,788
2,836
5'11 147-188 2,884
ings/villa/6581/calories.html
163-208
167-212
171-217
175-222
3,076
3,124
3,172
3,220
Recommended Daily Calories For Women
Middle Age Group With Moderate Activity :
4'11 90-120 2,100
5'0 93-124 2,133
5'1 97-128 2,177
5'2 100-132 2,210
5'3 104-137 2,254
5'4 107-140 2,287
5'5 111-145 2,331
5'6 114-149 2,364
5'7 118-154 2,408
5'8 121-157 2,441
5'9 125-162 2,485
5'10 128-166 2,518
5'10 128-166 2,518
5'11 132-170 2,562
6'0 135-174 2,595
6'1 139-178 2,639
6'2 142-182 2,672
Fast Food Nutritional Info
http://www.geocities.com/hotsprings/villa/6581/fastfood.html
Whopper w.Cheese
Vanilla Shake –
Super Size Fries
Diet Coke
Supposed to be:
760 CAL.
small 360 CAL
540 CAL
0 CAL
2644 CAL
Fast Food Nutritional Info
http://www.geocities.com/hotsprings/villa/6581/fastfood.html
Cheese Pizza
380 Cal
Regular Slice Sausage Pizza 495 Cal
Regular Slice Pepperoni Pizza 427 CAL
Supposed to be:
2644 CAL
Digestive Tract
• Also known as the GI tract
• Consists of a one-way digestive
tract
• Food is moved through the tract
by slow, rhythmic muscular
contractions called peristalsis
Answers
(I) Sequence
(way food travels)
oral cavity (mouth)  esophagus 
stomach  small intestine  large
intestine  rectum  anus  toilet
1. Oral Cavity
• Ingestion of food
• Teeth are used in the mechanical
breakdown of food which serves to
increase surface area for enzyme
action
• Carbohydrate digestion begins in the
mouth by enzymes secreted from the
salivary glands
Ex: amylase
1. Oral Cavity
• salivary glands
Ex: amylase
2. Esophagus
• Connects mouth to stomach
• Peristaltic action of the
esophagus moves food to the
stomach
3. Stomach
• Lining of the stomach contains
gastric glands that secrete gastric
juice
• This gastric juice contains
enzymes and hydrochloric acid
• Protein digestion begins here
3. Stomach
• Lining of the stomach contains gastric
glands that secrete gastric juice
Gastric Bypass Surgery
Gastric Bypass Surgery
4. Small Intestine
• Carbohydrate, protein, and lipid
digestion is completed here
• Nutrient absorption occurs in the
small intestine
• Structures like the gall bladder
and pancreas secrete enzymes
into the small intestine for
digestion
4. Small Intestine
Gall Bladder
• Bile is produced in the liver and
stored in the gall bladder
• Bile is secreted by the gall
bladder into the small intestine
for emulsification
• Emulsification- the breakdown
of fats
Pancreas
• Located near the stomach
• For digestive purposes, the
pancreas secretes:
protease- breakdown of proteins
lipase- breakdown of lipids (fats)
5. Large Intestine
• Water absorption only
• NO nutrient absorption occurs
here
• Undigested material is known as
feces
• The large intestine passes the
feces into the rectum
5. (the quest for Polyps)
• Colonoscopy:
5. Large Intestine
( Colon Polyps_)
• Polyps are small growths on the inner
colon lining that look like warts.
5. Removal Colon Polyps_)
6. Rectum
Temporarily stores the
feces
7. Anus
Opening through which
feces passes out of the body
(Egestion)
(II) Nutrient Absorption
• Takes place in the small
intestine
• Chemical digestion in humans
is accomplished by Hydrolysis
and the use of enzymes
End Products of Digestion
Proteins  amino acids
Carbohydrates  glucose
Lipids  fatty acids + glycerol
• The end products of
digestion are absorbed in
the small intestine by
finger-like projections
called villi
Villus
• Lacteal- absorption of
fatty acids and
glycerol
• Capillary networkabsorption of glucose
and amino acids
Roughage
• Is an indigestible material in
food that provides bulk, which
stimulates the muscles of the
digestive tube and thus keeps
food moving through it.
sources: fruits, vegetables, and
grains.
Lack of roughage in the diet is one
cause of constipation.
Disorders
of the
Digestive Tract
Anorexia Nervosa
• A condition in which there is a severe
loss of weight accompanied by
symptoms of nutritional deficiencies.
• Psychological condition where a
person is unable to take or retain
food due to an excessive concern
about obesity
Ulcers
an erosion of the surface of the
digestive tract associated
with pain, nausea, and
vomiting.
Constipation
To much water is absorbed
by/in the large intestine.
Also can exist due to lack of
roughage.
Diarrhea
Decreased water absorption
and increased peristaltic
activity of large intestine.
Results in an increased,
multiple, watery feces.
Appendicitis
An inflammation of the
appendix.
Usually feces that infects the
appendix.
Appendicitis
Normal
Infected
Gallstones
An accumulation of hardened
cholesterol deposits in the
gall bladder.
Dats-all-folks