#### Transcript ppt

```Chapter 8: Potential Energy and
Conservative Forces
• Potential Energy and Conservation of Energy.
• Conservative and non-conservative forces
• Gravitational and Elastic Potential Energy
• Conservation of (Mechanical) Energy
• External and Internal Forces
• CONSERVATION OF ENERGY
5-Nov-06
Lecture notes by Dr. M. S. Kariapper KFUPM
- PHYSICS
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8. 2 Work and Potential Energy
Potential Energy U is a form of stored energy that can be
associated with the configuration (or arrangement) of a
system of objects that exert certain types of forces
(conservative) on one another.
-
When work gets done on an object, its potential and/or
kinetic energy increases.
-
There are different types of potential energy:
1. Gravitational energy
2. Elastic potential energy (energy in an stretched spring)
3. Others (magnetic, electric, chemical, …)
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Lecture notes by Dr. M. S. Kariapper KFUPM
- PHYSICS
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•
We know that the work done result in a change in kinetic
energy (W=DK). Now we can ask the question: where did
the kinetic energy go (if it is decreased) or where did it come
from (if it increased)! Note that the force only function as the
agent which rearranges the configuration of the system (by
displacing one or more of the object in the system).
Assuming that our system is isolated (no external force
acting on it) the answer, as you have already guessed, is to
(or from) the potential energy of the system..
•
When one of these special forces (let us label it Fc) does
some work (Wc) by changing the system configuration, the
force derives the energy from the stored potential energy
associated with that force:
U decreases
DUc  Wc WW  00 
 U increases
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- PHYSICS
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Conservative and Nonconservative forces
•
We can define a potential energy for this force by the
equation DU=-W only if W12= - W21.
•
A force for which W12= - W21 is called a conservative forces.
This is same as saying that the net work done by a
conservative force around any closed path (return back to the
initial configuration) is zero. A force that is not conservative
is called a nonconservative force. We cannot define potential
energy associated with a nonconservative forces.
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- PHYSICS
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•
The gravitational force and the spring force are examples of
conservative forces. The frictional force and fluid drag force
are examples of nonconservative forces.
path inependance of conservative forces
The work done by a conservative force on a
particle moving between two points does
not depend on the path taken by the particle.
Wab,1  Wab,2
The net work done by a conservative force
on a particle moving moving around every
closed is zero.
Wab,1  Wba ,2  0
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Lecture notes by Dr. M. S. Kariapper KFUPM
- PHYSICS
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Non-conservative forces:
A force is non-conservative if it causes a change in mechanical
energy; mechanical energy is the sum of kinetic and potential
energy.
Example: Frictional force.
- This energy cannot be converted back into other forms of
energy (irreversible).
- Work does depend on path.
Sliding a book on a table
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- PHYSICS
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8.4 Determining Potential Energy Values
•
In general we can write:
x
y
z
DU   W   Fx dx   Fy dy   Fz dz
f
x
y
i
•
f
f
z
i
i
Gravitational potential energy, DUg
y
y
DUg   Wg   Fg dy   (mg ) dy
f
y
f
y
i
i
 mg  y 

Fg has only y-component: (-mg ) ˆj
yf
yi
DUg  mg ( y  y )  mg Dy
f
i
Rewrite Uf as U and yf as y and take Ui to be the
reference level and assign the values Ui =0 and yi =0.

U ( y)  mg y
DO CP 8-2
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- PHYSICS
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•
Elastic potential energy, DUs
xi
xf
1
2
2
DU s  W s  k (x f  x i )
2
Elastic potential energy stored in a spring:
1 2
U s  kx
2
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The spring is stretched or
compresses from its
equilibrium position by x
Lecture notes by Dr. M. S. Kariapper KFUPM
- PHYSICS
8/8
SP 8-2
•
•
5-Nov-06
(a) What is the gravitational potential
energy U of the sloth–Earth system if we
take the reference point y = 0 to be (1) at
the ground, (2) at a balcony floor that is 3.0
m above the ground, (3) at the limb, and (4)
1.0 m above the limb? Take the
gravitational potential energy to be zero at y
= 0.
(b) The sloth drops to the ground. For each
choice of reference point, what is the
change DU in the potential energy of the
sloth-Earth system due to the fall?
Lecture notes by Dr. M. S. Kariapper KFUPM
- PHYSICS
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8.5 Conservation of Mechanical Energy
If we deal only with conservative forces and
If we deal with an isolated system (no energy added or removed):
The total mechanical energy Emec  K  U of a system remains
constant!!!!
DEmec  DK  DU  0
K2  U 2  K1  U1
The final and initial energy of a system remain the same:
Thus:
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Ei = Ef
E  Ki  U i  K f  U f
Lecture notes by Dr. M. S. Kariapper KFUPM
- PHYSICS
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•
5-Nov-06
Figure 8-7
Lecture notes by Dr. M. S. Kariapper KFUPM
- PHYSICS
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8-7 Work done on a System by an External Force (and friction)
•
When we stated the conservation of mechanical energy for a system in
the previous section, we specified two conditions:
•
•
•
Isolated system (no external forces)
Only conservative forces in the system.
Let us now introduce external forces doing work on the system, then:
Wex  DK  DU

Wex  DEmec
•
And also add nonconservative forces (friction involved) in the system:
Wex  DEmec  DEth
Eth  f k d  k N d
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( work done on the system, no friction invloved )
(work done on the system, friction involved)
(increase in thermal energy by sliding)
Lecture notes by Dr. M. S. Kariapper KFUPM
- PHYSICS
12/8
8-8 Conservation of Energy
•
The total energy of a system can change only by amounts of energy Wex
that are transferred to or from the system.
Wex  DEmec  DEth  DEint
•
DEint acknowledges the fact that thermal energy is not the only other
form of energy that a system can have which is not mechanical energy,
e.g. chemical energy in your muscles or in a battery, or nuclear energy.
•
The total energy of an isolated system cannot change.
DEmec  DEth  DEint  0
•
Power as the rate at which energy is transferred from one form to another
Pavg  DE
Dt
P  dE
dt
Average power
Instantaneous power
The rate at which the work is done is a special case of energy being transferred to
(or from) kinetic energy (one form of energy).
5-Nov-06
Lecture notes by Dr. M. S. Kariapper KFUPM
- PHYSICS
13/8
P.5
A frictionless roller coaster of mass m 825 kg tops the first hill with v0 = 17.0 m/s, at the
initial height h = 42.0 m. How much work does the gravitational force do on the car
from that point to
(a) point A ? (b) point B, and (c) point C?
If the gravit. Pot. Energy of the car-Earth system is taken to be zero at C, what is its value
when the car iis at
(d) B and (e) A?
If the mass were doubled, would the change in the gravitational pot. energy of the system
between points A and B increase, decrease, or remain the same?
5-Nov-06
Lecture notes by Dr. M. S. Kariapper KFUPM
- PHYSICS
14/8
SP 8-7
In the figure, a 2.0 kg package of tamale slides along a
floor with speed v1 = 4.0 m/s. It then runs into and
compresses a spring, until the package momentarily
stops. Its path to the initially relaxed spring is
frictionless, but as it compresses the spring, a kinetic
frictional force from the floor, of magnitude 15 N, acts
on it. The spring constant is 10,000 N/m. By what
distance d is the spring compressed when the package
stops?
5-Nov-06
Lecture notes by Dr. M. S. Kariapper KFUPM
- PHYSICS
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